CASIA OpenIR  > 毕业生  > 博士学位论文
铰接转向式履带车关键控制技术研究
林浩
学位类型工学博士
导师梁自泽
2016-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
关键词铰接转向式履带车 铰接机构 液压伺服 履带同步控制 路径跟踪
摘要
铰接转向式履带车是由铰接机构连接并实现转向和俯仰等功能的双节履带车,具有接地比压低,机动性高,负载能力大,地形适应能力强等特点,也被称为履带式全地形车,可广泛应用在军事国防、极地科考、工程应用以及抢险救灾等场合。随着对铰接转向式履带车应用需求的增多,对其性能要求也越来越高。但一些关键技术特别是前后车体的控制与协调技术的研究进展缓慢,与国外差距较大,限制了我国铰接转向式履带车的发展水平,因此铰接转向式履带车的关键控制技术问题亟待解决。本文对铰接转向式履带车的几个主要的关键控制问题进行了研究,并对其控制系统的设计进行了探讨,主要内容包括:
1. 对铰接转向式履带车的研究意义和国内外研究现状进行了综述,总结了铰接转向式履带车设计中的关键技术,并结合本文的研究重点,对其中的关键技术的主要研究方法和现状进行了介绍。
2. 设计制作了铰接转向式履带车实验样机,包括铰接机构和前后车体三部分。首先针对铰接机构的功能需求,设计了四自由度铰接机构及其液压驱动系统,然后建立了铰接机构的运动学模型并对其关键参数和运动性能进行了分析,最后介绍了铰接式履带车前后车体的设计与制作要点,包括行走机构和驱动机构等。
3. 针对铰接转向式履带车在不同地面行驶的问题,分别建立了其运动学和动力学模型。分析了铰接转向式履带车直驶和转向时前后车体速度受履带滑移的影响,建立了直驶和转向运动学模型。由于履带与坚硬和松软路面的作用机理不相同,分别分析了车辆在两种路面直驶和转向时的受力情况,然后根据铰接点的力和力矩平衡关系,建立了统一的动力学模型,并对其进行了分析讨论。
4. 针对铰接机构的运动控制问题,提出了一种基于自适应backstepping的液压缸位置伺服控制方法。首先将铰接机构运动控制问题转换成液压伺服控制问题,然后基于伺服阀控制非对称液压缸基本方程,建立了电液位置伺服模型,针对模型中存在的非线性不确定参数,通过构造积分型Lyapunov函数,将非线性不确定参数线性化,提出了一种基于自适应backstepping的控制方法,设计了基于充分光滑投影算子的自适应律,解决了系统参数的漂移问题,同时对控制律添加阻尼项,抑制了外界干扰对系统的影响。搭建了AMESim与Matlab的联合仿真平台,通过对比仿真,验证了所提出的算法的有效性。
5. 针对铰接转向式履带车的四履带同步问题,提出了一种基于相邻交叉耦合同步控制结构的带有干扰观测器的自适应滑模同步控制算法。建立了车速、转向角与四条履带速度的关系模型,给出了一种基于相邻交叉耦合的四履带同步控制结构,针对系统中存在的不确定参数和外界干扰,将不确定项与干扰项合并,并提出了一种基于干扰观测器的自适应滑模同步控制算法,分别设计了线性和非线性干扰观测器抑制外界干扰,并提出了一种边界层自适应算法有效减弱了系统的抖振,通过仿真实验对其进行了验证。
6. 针对铰接转向式履带车的路径跟踪问题,提出了一种基于自适应模糊滑模的路径跟踪算法。建立了铰接转向式履带车存在滑移时的路径跟踪误差模型,由于滑移参数导致了模型的不确定性和非线性,首先基于Lyapunov稳定性方法设计了不确定参数的估计值,解决了滑移角未知的问题,然后将非线性项合并到干扰项中,设计了一种带有切换项的滑模控制器,通过抑制合成干扰解决了系统的非线性问题,并提出了一种切换项的模糊逼近算法,对其进行连续化,解决了切换项不连续带来的抖振问题和合成干扰上界难以确定的问题,实现了铰接式履带车的路径有效跟踪。
7. 针对铰接转向式履带车的机构特点和行驶环境,基于分层递阶结构设计了其控制系统,并对其运动性能进行了实验验证。首先制作了液压式铰接机构及其控制系统,并对其转向和俯仰运动进行了验证。针对液压系统体积和质量较大的问题,在保持自由度不变的前提下,设计并制作了电机驱动式铰接机构。然后基于模块化的设计思想,采用分层递阶结构设计了铰接转向式履带车的控制系统,其扩展性保证了可同时兼容液压式和电机式铰接机构。最后对车辆进行了运动和越障实验。
其他摘要
Articulated steering tracked vehicle (ASTV, also called All terrain vehicle)
is kind of double tracked vehicles hinged by a articulated mechanism to achieve
steering, pitching and rolling between the two. ASTV has the advantages of low
ground pressure, high mobility and good adaptability to rough terrain, which equipped
it to deal with many applications, such as military affairs, polar science,
engineering, disaster relief and so on. As the requirement for ASTV increases,
higher performance is in great demand as well. Key technologies especially
the coordination control issue of front and rear vehicle has made tardy progress
recently and still lags behind foreign countries. Therefore, the key control technology
of ASTV should be solved urgently. Key control issues of ASTV were
studied and design of the control system were discussed in this thesis. And the
main contents of this thesis are as follows:
Firstly, the research significance of ASTV is presented and the former research
work of ASTV is reviewed. The existing technique nodus are then summarized.
According to the key research focuses of this paper, main research methods
and current conditions of those key control techniques are introduced.
Secondly, the experimental prototype of mechanical structure for ASTV is
designed and manufactured, including the articulated mechanism, the front vehicle
and the rear vehicle. Aiming at functional requirements of hinge mechanism,
a 4-DOF articulated mechanism and its hydraulic control system are firstly designed.
Then the kinematics of the articulated mechanism is derived and its
motion performance is analysed. The key design gist of the undercarriage and
the driving mechanism of the tracked vehicle are presented finally.
Thirdly, the kinematic model and dynamic model of ASTV driving on different
terrain are derived. Based on the relationship between the vehicle speed and
slip ratio, the kinematic models of ASTV straight driving and steering are built,
respectively. As the interaction between the track and soft ground is different
from firm ground, the forces acting on ASTV straight driving and steering on both grounds are analysed. And based on the equilibrium relationship between
force and torque, unified dynamic model is built and discussed.
Fourthly, an adaptive backstepping based electro-hydraulic(E-H) control
method is proposed for the motion control issue of articulated mechanism. The
motion control issue of articulated mechanism is converted into the issue of hydraulic
servo control at first, then the model of E-H control is built based on the
basic equations of E-H system. Aiming at the nonlinear uncertain parameters
of the model, integral-type Lyapunov function is defined to transform them to
linear parameters. An adaptive backstepping based E-H control method is proposed.
And the problems of parameter-drift and external disturbance are solved
by the parameter update laws based on sufficiently smooth projection operators
and the added nonlinear-damping item. A cosimulation platform using AMESim
and Matlab is build and the efficiency of the proposed algorithm is validated.
Fifthly, an adjacent cross-coupling structure based adaptive sliding-mode
synchronization control algorithm is proposed for the synchronization issue of
ASTV’s four tracks. The relation models of steering angle, the speed of the vehicle
and the speed of four tracks are built. Based on the adjacent cross-coupling
method, a synchronization control structure of four tracks is designed. Aiming
at the uncertain parameters and external disturbance of the system, a disturbance
observer based adaptive sliding-mode controller is proposed. The effects
of external disturbance are inhibited by designed linear and nonlinear disturbance
observer. The chattering phenomenon is reduced by the proposed boundary layer
adaptive algorithm, which is verified in the simulation environment.
Sixthly, an adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode controller is proposed for the path
tracking issue of ASTV. One tracking error model on occasion of slip angles
is established. Aiming at the uncertainty and nonlinear characteristics of the
system caused by the slip angle, an adaptive law of uncertain parameters is
designed based on Lyapunov stability theory to deal with the unknown slip angle.
And a sliding-mode controller with switching function is designed to reduce the
effects of the disturbance merged with the nonlinear term. Then considering
the chattering problem caused by the switching function, a fuzzy approximator is proposed to make the switching function continuous. Moreover, the fuzzy
approximator is also an identifier to the unknown upper bound of the disturbance.
It is verified by simulations that the proposed algorithm is effective for path
tracking control of ASTV.
Seventhly, a hierarchical control structure is adopted to construct the control
system of ASTV in consideration of mechanics and working environment. Some
experiments are carried out to test the movement performance. The designed
hydraulic system of the articulated mechanism is firstly implemented. Steering
and pitching motion experiments are then carried out. Due to the large size
and mass of the hydraulic control system and under the premise of maintaining
the same degree of freedom, an articulated mechanism driven by motor is designed.
Based on the modular design method, the control system of ASTV is
established with the hierarchical control structure. Owing to the expansibility
design concept, the control system can be compatible with both hydraulic and
motor-driven articulated mechanism at the same time. At last, the motion and
obstacle-surmounting experiments of ASTV are performed.
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/11797
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
作者单位中国科学院自动化研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
林浩. 铰接转向式履带车关键控制技术研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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