|Thesis Advisor||谭民 ; 李恩|
|Place of Conferral||北京|
|Keyword||搬运机器人 运动学分析 控制系统 Ros 运动学标定|
(3) 针对冲压搬运过程的运动路径要求，对轨迹规划方法进行研究，总结搬运机器人基本工序，将笛卡尔空间轨迹规划和关节空间轨迹规划方法相结合，提出了适用于冲压搬运过程的轨迹规划方法。在搬运机器人机构设计及运动学分析、控制系统设计和轨迹规划方法研究基础上，完成了控制系统和规划方法的集成和测试，基于ROS(Robot Operating System)搭建了机器人的半实物仿真系统，通过将各关节运动数据与仿真模型相结合，利用实际控制系统采集到的各关节运动数据驱动ROS中机器人模型进行三维运动，验证了控制系统的有效性。
|Other Abstract||At present, in the stamping production industry, automatic production mode which uses handling robots instead of manual operations is the technical solution to promote product quality, guarantee safety in production, improve production efficiency and reduce production cost. It is also the main trend of the production mode in this industry. But due to the sensitivity of production cost in stamping industry, it is difficult for the traditional industrial robot to achieve good balance in terms of cost and performance. Besides, it is also difficult to meet the requirements of automatic production for low cost handling robot because of its workspace and positioning precision. Therefore, the research of the optimal design and high precision control of the low cost handling robot is of great significance.|
Based on the five degree of freedom handling robot, the research mainly focuses on the control system design, kinematics analysis, trajectory planning and the kinematic calibration method. The objectives of this paper are accomplishing the control system for handling robot with independently intellectual property rights, proposing trajectory planning algorithm which can be applied to stamping process, improving the absolute positioning precision of handling robot by using the kinematic calibration method based on stereo vision system, and realizing the continuous motion control and absolute positioning of the low cost handling robot in the stamping process. The main contents of this paper are:
(1) According to the actual situation of punching production line, handling robot mechanical structure was designed to meet the requirements of the punching production. Kinematics modeling, workspace and error analysis were further developed. The forward kinematic model was established by using the D-H method. The inverse kinematic was solved. And then the simulation of handling robot was performed based on MATLAB and the robotics toolbox to verify the correctness of the kinematic model; Based on the kinematics model and the motion range of each joint, the explicit expression of the workspace of handling robot was obtained; By establishing the Jacobian matrix of handling robot, the relationship between the positioning accuracy and the error of each joint was obtained. This provided instructive parameters for mechanical process, assembly and robot control.
(2) According to the overall requirements analysis of robot control system, the low cost handling robot control system was designed to meet the requirements of the punching production based on the embedded system. And the design method of multiaxis motion controller was put forward to realize the precision control of multiple motors. The three core modules of the control system were the main controller, the motion control card and the manual pulse generator. The human-machine interface of the main controller was realized by the operation mode of buttons instead of programming languages. The teaching process was completed only by click and selection. The advantages are simple to operate and easy to use; the independently developed motion control card made full use of the internal timers in the ARM processor. And the pulse output control circuit was independently designed. Through the timing, pulse counting and pulse output function of the timer, the accurate control and output for pulses were realized, and then the accuracy motion control of handling robot was realized; Manual pulse generator disengaged manual control from the human-machine interface to improve the convenience of operation and ensure the safety of on-site operation.
(3) According to the requirements of stamping process on the motion path of handling robot, research on trajectory planning algorithm was done. Trajectory planning algorithm which could be applied to handling in the stamping process was proposed by summarizing the basic handling process and combining the trajectory planning algorithm in the Descartes space and the joint space. Based on the mechanical design, kinematics analysis, control system design and trajectory planning algorithm, the integration and test of the control system were completed. The hardware-in-the-loop simulation system for handling robot was built based on ROS (Robot Operating System). By combining the simulation model and movement data of each joint, the joint data which were collected in the actual control system were used to drive the simulation model in ROS to realize 3D motion. The effectiveness of the control system was verified.
(4) In order to improve the absolute positioning precision of handling robot, a low cost novel kinematic calibration method based on optimal trajectory planning and monocular vision was proposed to perform calibration and compensation for the parameters error after assembly. According to the independently developed mechanical structure composed of three rotary joints and two translational joints, the forward kinematic model was modified by the MDH method to establish the error model of the handling robot; a low cost monocular vision measurement system was designed with monocular camera and self-designed target to realize position measurement. The measurement system can effectively guarantee the accuracy of position measurement and greatly reduces the cost. And then the optimal trajectory for kinematic calibration was obtained by Genetic Algorithm in the workspace of handling robot to realize the optimal calibration results under the premise of the minimum measurement points. On this basis, the Levenberg-Marquard algorithm was used to calibrate the structural parameters of the handling robot to meet the requirement of absolute positioning precision.
|丁磊. 五自由度搬运机器人的运动控制与精度标定方法研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.|
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