CASIA OpenIR  > 毕业生  > 硕士学位论文
Thesis Advisor曹志强
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword视觉定位 位置估计 视觉测量 视觉控制 单目视觉 移动机器人
Abstract有效的环境感知是移动机器人领域研究的热点。单目视觉以其体积小、响应快、应用灵活等特点,已经成为移动机器人环境感知的重要手段,具有广阔的应用前景。本文针对面向移动机器人的单目视觉测量开展研究,基于先验知识建立视觉测量模型,提高了移动机器人视觉系统应用的方便性。论文的主要内容和创新点如下: 首先,分析了视觉系统对移动机器人定位及测量的研究意义,从固定摄像头的平面视觉定位、PnP 视觉定位、以及机载摄像头的视觉定位三方面,梳理了基于单目视觉的视觉系统定位与测量的研究现状,并对论文内容和结构做了介绍。 第二,面向主从式移动机器人系统,研究了基于视觉的跟随问题,其中主机器人后部贴有跟踪标识,从机器人通过CMOS 摄像头采集信息。给出了一种基于先验知识的特征点与特征线段的提取方法。设计了基于Faugeras 方法的单点位置测量方法,用于估计主机器人在从机器人坐标系下的相对位置。在此基础上,设计了逻辑控制器,实现了从机器人对主机器人的跟随控制。在基于图像的视觉伺服方面,以标识图像面积和图像面积变化率为输入,以电机输入电压占空比为输出,设计了模糊控制器,实现了从机器人对主机器人的纵向跟随控制。 第三,研究了移动机器人单目视觉基于单幅图像信息的环境测量问题。建立了视觉测量模型,依据特征点对之间的垂直位置关系,实现了目标的高度测量。以办公室自然场景为例,采集办公室场景的图像并提取特征点,计算出地面上特征点的二维位置,然后利用特征点对之间的几何关系获得目标物体的高度信息。 第四,利用天花板上的固定摄像机,提出了一种基于平面约束的机器人位姿测量方法。在移动机器人上配置跟踪标识符,通过对标识符的特征点提取与识别,结合测量模型,实现了对其视野内移动机器人位置和方向的测量。 最后,对本文工作进行总结,并指出可以进一步开展的研究工作。
Other AbstractEffective environment perception has become a research hotspot for mobile robots. As an important perception means, monocular vision has been widely used with broad potential applications due to its advantages of small size, fast response and flexibility. This thesis conducts the research on monocular visual measurement for mobile robots. By utilizing priori knowledge, the visual measurement models are built to improve the application convenience of the mobile robot¡¯s visual system. The main contents and contributions are as follows: Firstly, the significance of visual system for mobile robot localization and measurement is analyzed. The research development of localization and measurement with a monocular camera is then addressed from the following three aspects: plane visual localization of fixed camera, PnP visual localization, and onboard camera localization. The contents and structure of this thesis are also introduced. Secondly, the vision-based mobile robot following is investigated for the leader-follower robotic system, where a tracking identifier is attached at the rear of the leader robot and the follower robot captures the corresponding information by a CMOS camera. An approach based on priori knowledge to extract feature point and feature line segments is presented, and a single-point position measurement approach based on the Faugeras method is designed to estimate the position of the leader robot relative to the follower robot. On this basis, a logical controller is designed to achieve the dynamic following for the leader-follower robotic system. Regarding image-based visual servoing, a fuzzy controller is designed where the image area of the identifier and its variation are regarded as the inputs. The output of this controller is the duty cycle, which is used to control motors. A longitudinal following for the leader follower robotic system is then achieved. Thirdly, the environmental measurement based on single image information is addressed by a mobile robot with monocular vision. The visual measurement model is established. The height of object is measured according to the vertical constraint of feature points. Take the office scene as an example. The feature points are extracted from one frame of image captured by the camera. After 2D positions of feature points on the ground are calculated, the geometric relationships of feature points are then utilized to obtain the height information of the objects. Fourthly, a position and orientation measurement approach based on planar constraints is proposed by using a ceiling-fixed camera. The mobile robot is equipped with a tracking identifier, and its feature points are extracted from single image. With the visual measurement model, the position and orientation of the target robot are computed. Finally, the conclusions are given and future works are proposed.
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
徐令仪. 面向移动机器人的单目视觉测量[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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