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机器人轨迹纠偏控制方法与实验研究
杨超1,2
Subtype工学硕士
Thesis Advisor景奉水
2017-11-22
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline控制理论与控制工程
Keyword轨迹跟踪 轨迹纠偏控制 运动规划 纠偏控制系统 焊缝跟踪
Abstract      机器人轨迹纠偏控制是指机器人在执行轨迹跟踪任务时,实时调节其末端位姿,减小轨迹跟踪误差的过程。机器人纠偏控制是实现机器人焊缝跟踪关键技术,在机器人焊接领域具有广泛的应用。
      但是,基于关节补偿的机器人轨迹纠偏控制技术长期以来被国外公司所垄断,其纠偏技术细节也不公开。本文结合国家科技重大专项项目“新型焊接机器人(2009ZX04013-011)”,开展了关节型机器人轨迹纠偏控制模型和方法研究,设计实现了纠偏控制相关系统模块,开发了具有纠偏控制功能的机器人控制器,搭建了焊缝纠偏实验平台,进行了直线焊缝、平面曲线焊缝和空间曲线焊缝纠偏性能实验。本文的主要研究内容包括:
      第二章提出了一种机器人轨迹纠偏系统模型和一种积分型纠偏控制器实现方案。首先利用旋量理论对机器人进行建模分析,并提出了机器人的正逆运动学算法和雅克比矩阵计算方法等,为实现机器人的纠偏控制提供运动控制的基础算法。然后采用机器人的关节补偿方式提出了一种机器人轨迹纠偏系统方案,并从原理上证明了机器人轨迹纠偏系统在积分型纠偏控制器作用下的轨迹纠偏误差的收敛性。
      第三章提出了工业机器人实时纠偏控制系统的实现方案。该系统由机器人控制系统与轨迹偏差检测系统组成,其中具备纠偏功能的机器人控制系统是核心。研制的工业机器人控制器,具备了机器人语言解释,任务规划,运动轨迹规划,纠偏实时信息处理,多关节实时同步补偿等功能。系统运行时,轨迹偏差信息传输给机器人控制器,机器人控制器根据第二章提出的纠偏方法把末端轨迹偏差纠正量转化为机器人各关节轨迹的纠正量,从而实现了机器人末端轨迹的实时纠偏功能。
      第四章进行了机器人纠偏性能的实验验证。在第三章基础上,采用商用的焊缝偏差测量设备搭建焊缝纠偏实验平台,并对直线焊缝进行了多次纠偏实验。通过对焊缝纠偏的实验数据分析,验证了第二章提出的纠偏方法的理论结果,说明本文提出的机器人纠偏控制方法以及纠偏控制系统有效性。同时对平面曲线焊缝和空间曲线焊缝进行了纠偏实验,验证了本文的纠偏方法的适用性和可靠性。
      第五章总结了全文的研究结果,并指出了下一步需要开展的工作。
Other Abstract      Robot trajectory rectification control refers to the process of reducing the tracking error by the pose correcting of robot end-effector in real time. This function is the key technology of seam tracking, and it is widely used in the field of robot welding.
      Unfortunately, robot trajectory rectification control based on joint compensation has been monopolized by foreign companies for a long time, and the details are not public to the technical personnel. The research of robot trajectory rectification control in this thesis is supported by the national science and technology major project—“new type of welding robot(Grant number 2009ZX04013-011 )”. The thesis’s main work is as follows:
      In chapter II, a robot trajectory rectification model and an integration-type implementation of the rectification controller are proposed. Firstly, the modelling and analysis of robot kinematics based on screw theory are presented. Secondly, Robot trajectory rectification control technology based on joint compensation are presented, and the convergence of trajectory correction error of the rectification control model with an integral controller has been proved.
      In chapter III, a robot control system with trajectory rectification function is presented. The robot control system has the functions of robot language explanation, task planning, motion planning, real-time synchronous control of joints, real-time rectifying processing based on joint compensation, and so on. During runtime, trajectory deviation information is transmitted to the robot controller, then the deviation is convert to joint compensation based on the method proposed in chapter II, which processing is synchronized with joints control. So this process can realize real-time trajectory rectification function.
      In chapter IV, a test system for robot trajectory rectification, with a commercial trajectory deviation measurement device, has been set up. Through the analysis of the correction of the line seam, the theoretical results of the trajectory rectification method proposed in chapter IIare verified, and the effectiveness of this method and system are explained. At the same time, the correction experiment of plane curve seam and space curve seam is carried out, and the applicability and reliability of trajectory rectification method are verified.
      In chapter IV, the research work of this paper is summarized, and the future research plans are proposed.
Subject Area控制理论与控制工程
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/20371
Collection毕业生_硕士学位论文
Affiliation1.中国科学院自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨超. 机器人轨迹纠偏控制方法与实验研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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