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面向复杂曲面构件的自动铺丝路径规划方法研究
蒋敏1,2
学位类型工学硕士
导师吴保林
2018-05-25
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词工艺约束 路径评价 路径规划 复合材料 自动丝束铺放
摘要
    复合材料自动铺丝技术具有加工效率高、制造成本低、可重复性好、自动化程度高等优点,在国外发达国家已广泛应用于各种大型和复杂复合材料构件的制造成型,而我国自动铺丝技术研究还处于起步阶段。自动铺丝路径规划技术是实现复合材料自动铺放成型的关键技术之一,深入研究该技术,有利于推动我国复合材料自动铺丝技术的发展。本文研究面向复杂曲面构件的自动铺丝路径规划方法,主要涉及自动铺丝路径的可铺放性、覆盖性和方向性工艺约束处理,路径综合评价等问题。本文的主要工作如下:
     (1)分析自动铺丝路径的可铺放性与丝束转向曲率之间的关系,提出了一种基于铺放角迭代修改和数列极限的丝束路径可铺放性约束处理算法。首先,分析了路径的转向半径对丝束侧向变形的影响,并开展丝束平面侧向弯曲铺放实验,确定不同铺放压力和铺放温度下的丝束最小转向半径;然后,在现有的丝束转向曲率约束处理算法的基础上,应用数列极限原理,提出了基于铺放角迭代修改和数列极限的丝束转向曲率约束处理算法;最后,基于上述约束处理算法开展丝束路径可铺放性仿真实验,验证了丝束路径可铺放性约束处理算法的有效性。
    (2)针对自动铺丝路径的覆盖性约束,提出了一种基于丝束增减位置动态调整的丝束路径覆盖性优化方法。首先,详细分析了不同情形下丝束重叠和间隙的产生情况,包括形成原因和丝束覆盖区域计算方法;然后,以最小化丝束重叠和间隙的面积为目标,提出了一种丝束增减位置动态调整策略;最后,通过开展一系列优化仿真实验,验证了本文提出的丝束覆盖性优化算法的有效性。
    (3)提出了一种综合工艺约束和路径评价的自动铺丝路径规划算法,并开展路径优化研究。首先,针对铺丝路径的方向性约束,提出了两种约束处理算法,保留最长无偏差路径段的等铺放角算法和减小偏置距离的平行等距偏置算法;然后,综合路径的可铺放性约束、覆盖性约束和方向性约束,并利用关联铺放效率和铺放质量的路径局部评价策略,提出了一种综合工艺约束和路径评价的路径规划算法,仿真实验表明本文所提算法优于现有的基于工艺约束的路径规划算法;最后,基于上述路径规划算法,提出了关联工艺需求的路径全局评价模型及选择模型。仿真实验表明该模型能够按照工艺上对铺放效率和铺放质量的权衡,合理地对路径进行评价,并选择最优的自动铺丝路径。
其他摘要    Automated Fibre Placement (AFP) has many advantages such as high processing efficiency, low manufacturing cost, good repeatability and high level of automation, and it has been widely used in the manufacturing of various large and complex composite parts in developed countries, but the research of the AFP is still in the initial stage in our country. Path planning is one of the key technologies to achieve the automated placement molding of composites, in-depth study of this technology is conducive to the AFP development of our country. In this thesis, path planning for AFP of complicated surface structure is studied, which mainly involves the problems such as handling the process constraint of placement ability, coverage and directionality, comprehensive evaluation of path. The main work and contributions of this paper are as follows:
    (1) The relationship between the placement ability and the curvature of the tow steering is analyzed, and a constraint processing algorithm based on iterative modification of placement angle and series limit for the placement ability is proposed.
Firstly, the influence of path’s steering radius on the lateral defo the placement ability rmation of the tow is analyzed, and the lateral bending placement experiments are conducted with the minimum steering radius of the tow under different layup pressure and layup temperature being acquired. Secondly, a constraint processing algorithm based on iterative modification of placement angle and series limit for the steering curvature of the tow is proposed, which is on the basis of the existing algorithm. Lastly, a simulation experiment of the tow path’s placement ability based on the above constraint processing algorithm is carried out, the result verifies the effectiveness of the constraint processing algorithm for the placement ability.
    (2) A method for optimizing the path coverage based on the dynamic adjustment of the position of the tow cutting and restarting is proposed. Firstly, the fibre overlap and gap in various situations are analyzed, including the formation reason and the calculation method of the tow coverage area. Secondly, a strategy where the position of the tow cutting and restarting is dynamically adjusted is proposed, for the purpose of minimizing the area of fibre overlap and gap. Lastly, a series of simulation experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method.
    (3) A path planning algorithm that integrates process constraints and path evaluation is proposed, and path optimization is studied. Firstly, two constraint processing methods for the tow directionality are proposed: the constant angle with retaining the longest normal path segment method and the parallel-equidistant offsetting with reduced offset distance method. Secondly, a novel path planning algorithm is proposed, it takes the constraints of placement ability, coverage and directionality into account and uses the path local-evaluation strategy based on placement efficiency and quality. The simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing path planning algorithm based on the process constraints. Lastly, a global evaluation model and a selection model of tow path are established, it is based on the above path planning algorithm and related to the process requirements. The simulation results indicate that the proposed models can reasonably evaluate the path according to the trade-off between the placement efficiency and quality, and select the optimal fibre path.
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/20930
专题毕业生_硕士学位论文
作者单位1.中国科学院自动化研究所精密感知与控制研究中心
2.中国科学院大学
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
蒋敏. 面向复杂曲面构件的自动铺丝路径规划方法研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2018.
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