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基于分布式认知的实物编程系统设计与实现
邓小舟
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor王丹力
2019-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学自动化研究所
Place of Conferral智能化大厦910会议室
Degree Discipline计算机应用技术
Keyword编程教育 实物编程 分布式认知 人机交互
Abstract

研究表明,计算思维的培养对与儿童的认知发展有着积极的作用,也是二十一世纪每个儿童应当学习掌握的技能。作为培养计算思维的方法之一,编程教育随着计算机技术的发展及实物交互界面的成熟愈发普及。研究发现,编程教育不仅可以培养儿童计算思维,而且在儿童语言,数学,创造力等方面的发展都有着积极的作用。

然而,对幼儿来说,编程似乎是一个相当大的挑战。在使用传统的编程方式编程时,儿童不仅在学习复杂语法和文本符号方面存在困难,而且在使用复杂的编程环境方面也存在困难。因此,降低编程难度,为儿童提供适当的编程工具在教育中具有很高的价值。实物交互界面是一种有效的互动方法,它融合了人类与物质世界互动的丰富性,有助于儿童的学习。有了实物编程工具,孩子们可以通过组装物理对象来编写程序,而无需敲击键盘,这使得孩子们更容易参与编程。此外,实物交互界面开放的环境可以很好地支持多人协作。

本研究致力于研究设计基于分布式认知的儿童编程系统,实验验证适合儿童实物编程的系统设计。在调研并分析国内外相关工作的基础上,结合实验提出了适合儿童合作编程的系统结构设计方式,实现了两款实物编程工具,通过用户评估验证实物编程可以降低认知负的特点,并尝试了算法教育与实物编程的结合。

本文的主要工作如下:

  1. 基于分布式认知的实物编程语言设计

根据分布式认知理论,结合实物交互界面下儿童操作习惯以及儿童的视觉认知习惯设计实物编程语言。所设计语言具有直观的语义与利于理解记忆语法以降低儿童的认知负荷。儿童可以像搭积木的操作编写程序,完成所设计的编程任务学习编程及算法。

  1. 基于分布式认知的实物编程原型系统的设计与实现

在借鉴了相关工作及分析了合作评估实验结果的基础上,设计并开发了基于实物的儿童编程系统:TLogicARcatTLogic的设计目的是为了探究实物编程工具能否降低编程所解决的问题的认知负荷,并设计不同的虚拟场景对比发现儿童对于在使用实物编程工具条件下的对于更有挑战性的任务有选择倾向。ARcatTLogic评估结论的基础上,结合了算法教育与实物编程,提出了在实物编程环境下的学习深度优先搜索算法的可能性。

 3. 对所实现的实物编程系统的用户研究

通过调研实物交互界面评估相关文献,设计对TLogicARcat的评估实验。研究对实验过程记录数据,问卷数据分析讨论。实验结果表明TLogic可以降低儿童的认知负荷,儿童在实物编程环境下倾向完成较有挑战性的任务。ARcat的实验结果表明,儿童在实物编程活动后,对算法有了初步的理解,证实了算法教育与实物编程结合的可行性。

Other Abstract

Children programming has been a wide field of research since 1960s. Research has shown that programming education can have a positive and measurable effect on children’s achievement, not only in areas such as math and science, but also in language skills, creativity, and social emotional interaction. Besides, learning programming is an efficient way to cultivate computational thinking which has been described as a fundamental skill for everyone, not only for computer scientists. 

However, programming appears to be quite a challenge for young children. With the traditional way of programming, children have difficulties not only in learning rigid syntax and text symbols, but also in using the complex programming environment. Therefore, lowering the difficulty of programming and offering children proper programming tools are highly valuable in education. TUI is an efficient interaction method embracing the richness of human’s interaction with the physical world, which contributes to children’s learning. With tangible programming tools, children can write programs by assembling the physical objects without keystrokes, which is much easier to involve children in programming. Besides, TUI has the advantages of involving multiple children in the same process, as TUI can easily provide an open and shared environment among children.

This thesis is devoted to the research and design of children's programming system based on distributed cognition, and the experimental verification of the system design suitable for children's physical programming. Based on investigation and analysis of related work, combined with experiments, this paper puts forward a system structure design method suitable for children's cooperative programming, realizes two kinds of tangible programming tools, verifies that tangible programming can reduce the negative cognitive characteristics by user evaluation, and tries to combine algorithm education with tangible programming.

1. Design of tangible programming language based on distributed cognition

According to the distributed cognitive theory, we design different tangible programming languages. The design is based on the children's operating habits and visual cognitive habits under the physical interaction interface. Considered distributed cognition, the designed language has intuitive semantics and is conducive to understanding memory grammar to reduce children's cognitive load. Children can write programs like building blocks, complete the designed programming tasks, learn programming and algorithms.

2. Design and Implementation of Tangible Programming System Based on Distributed Cognition

Based on the related work and the analysis of the cooperative evaluation experiment results, two tangibe programming system based on distributed cognition are designed and developed: TLogic and ARcat. TLogic is designed to explore whether physical programming tools can reduce the cognitive load of programming problems, and to design different virtual scenes to compare and find out children's task preference under the condition of using tangible programming tools. Based on TLogic evaluation conclusion, ARcat combines algorithm education with physical programming, puts forward process control in physical programming environment, and verifies the feasibility by experiments.

3. User Study of Tangible Programming Tools

This paper designed the evaluation experiments of TLogic and ARCat. The results based on quantative data and interview show that the tangible programming tool based on distributed cognition could reduce the cognitive load of children and help children solve problems and even learn algorithm.

Pages90
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/23867
Collection毕业生_硕士学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
邓小舟. 基于分布式认知的实物编程系统设计与实现[D]. 智能化大厦910会议室. 中国科学院大学自动化研究所,2019.
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