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仿生滑翔机器海豚的多模态运动控制研究
王健
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor谭民 ; 喻俊志
2021-05-25
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline控制理论与控制工程
Keyword仿生滑翔机器海豚 多模态 深度控制 路径规划 路径跟踪
Abstract

仿生机器海豚的研究旨在为高性能水下航行器的设计与控制提供重要的理论基础和技术支撑。与生物海豚相比,机器海豚在运动性能和续航能力等方面仍存在较大差距,还需更为深入的探究。本文围绕仿生滑翔机器海豚的多模态建模及运动控制开展研究,主要内容如下:

一、针对机器海豚续航能力不足的问题,提出了一种混合驱动型仿生滑翔机器海豚设计方案,搭建了其机械系统和软硬件控制系统,研制开发了原型样机。针对滑翔机器海豚的三维滑翔运动和仿生拍动运动,基于牛顿--欧拉建模法,构建了一体化动力学模型,并基于准稳态模型分析了其各部件所受的水动力。仿真和水下实验验证了滑翔机器海豚具备良好的三维多模态运动能力,并通过对比分析滑翔机器海豚在两种模态下的三维螺旋运动仿真及实验数据,验证了所建模型的有效性和准确性。

二、针对滑翔机器海豚的深度控制问题,分别提出了面向滑翔模态和仿海豚模态的深度控制框架。在滑翔模态方面,提出了一种基于模型预测算法的深度控制方法,通过简化其动力学模型,设计了基于滑模观测器的速度估计器和基于PID的偏航控制器,解决了大延迟和控制精度差等问题。在仿海豚模态方面,提出了一种双模态深度控制方法,主要包括三个部分:(1)采用视线导航法将深度控制转换为俯仰控制;(2)结合仿海豚模态特征,设计了基于鳍状肢偏置和CPG偏置的双模态选择器,并分析了其基本原理;(3)采用自适应算法推导了俯仰控制律,并基于一体化动力学模型进行了参数离线优化。仿真和水下实验验证了所提方法在滑翔模态和仿海豚模态下深度控制方法的有效性。

三、针对滑翔机器海豚的平面路径规划和跟踪控制问题,提出了一种基于分层框架的路径规划及跟踪控制方法。首先,将平面路径规划看作一个多目标优化问题,设计了状态空间、动作空间和奖励函数,并给出了一种分层深度强化学习算法。通过使用多个小容量网络分别训练目标趋近路径和障碍避碰路径,提高了训练速度,实现了实时路径规划。其次,在路径跟踪方面,通过改进二维视线导航法,解决了导航阶段切换不平滑问题,随后提出了基于自适应反步法的路径跟踪控制方法,使用障碍李雅普诺夫函数避免了传统控制律中出现的偏航角奇异现象。此外,给出了分段模态映射律和基于模糊推理的控制参数映射律,解决了力/力矩到驱动参数的控制分配问题。最后,仿真及水下实验验证了所提方法的有效性。

四、针对滑翔机器海豚的三维机动性和海洋环境下的路径规划问题,提出了一种基于混合模态的三维路径规划框架。首先,改进了滑翔机器海豚的转向机构,设计了多模态偏航机动策略,并通过实验验证了其偏航机动性能。其次,设计了一种基于有限状态机的俯仰机动策略,实现了滑翔机器海豚竖直方向的高机动运动。再次,基于三维机动性分析所得的运动特性,使用动力学模型验证了规划任务的可行性,并获得运动学约束。最后,提出了一种适于海洋环境的三维路径规划方法,包括基于滑翔模态的全局路径规划、基于仿海豚模态的避障路径规划以及路径平滑方法,仿真验证了所提方法的有效性。

Other Abstract

The research on bio-inspired robotic fish and robotic dolphins aims to lay theoretical and technological foundations for design and control of high-performance underwater vehicles. There is still a large gap between robotic dolphins and underwater creatures in the aspects of motion performance and endurance, which deserves further investigation. This dissertation mainly concerns multi-modal modeling and motion control of a gliding robotic dolphin. The technical contributions are summarized as follows.

Firstly, in order to improve the endurance of the robotic dolphin, a hybrid scheme of the gliding robotic dolphin is proposed. By constructing its mechanical, hardware, and software systems, the prototype is developed. Considering that the gliding robotic dolphin can achieve both the gliding and dolphin-like motions, an integrated dynamic model is established based on Newton-Euler method, and the hydrodynamic forces are analyzed with the quasi-steady-state model. The simulations and aquatic experiments verify that the gliding robotic dolphin has good capabilities in three-dimensional~(3-D) multi-modal motion. Moreover, we conduct the experiments and simulations of the 3-D spiraling motion in the two modes, and the obtained results validate the effectiveness and accuracy of the established model.

Secondly, a depth control framework for the gliding and dolphin-like motions is proposed. In the aspect of gliding motion, a depth control method based on model predictive algorithm is proposed. By simplifying the dynamic model, a speed estimator based on sliding mode observer and a yaw controller based on PID are designed, further solving the problems of large delay and poor control accuracy. With regard to the dolphin-like motion, a dual-mode depth control method is particularly presented. The control method is composed of three main components: (1) The line-of-sight method is adopted to convert the depth control to pitch control. (2) Through combining with the characteristics of dolphin-like motion, a dual-mode selector based on flippers and CPG model is designed, and their basic principles are analyzed. (3) An adaptive method is employed to calculate the pitch control law, whose parameters are optimized offline based on the integrated dynamic model. Simulations and aquatic experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Thirdly, a hierarchical framework to achieve path planning and following for a gliding robotic dolphin is proposed. Regarding the planer path planning as a multi-objective optimization problem, a hierarchical deep Q network is presented with the designed state space, action space, and reward function. By applying multiple small capacity networks to separately train the target approach path and obstacle avoidance path, the training speed is improved with satisfactory real-time performance. With regard to the path following, the smoothness problem in switching stage is addressed with an improved line-of-sight method. Further, we derive a nonlinear control law based on adaptive backstepping technique, and specially avoid singularities in the law derivation using Barrier Lyapunov function. Besides, the mapping laws based on piecewise and fuzzy method are presented to solve the control assignment problem of force/moment to actuator parameters. Both simulations and aquatic experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Fourthly, a 3-D path planning framework based on hybrid motion modes is proposed when the gliding robotic dolphin works in the marine environment. In order to enhance the yaw maneuverability, the multiple modes of yaw motion are particularly designed with the improved steering mechanism, and their performances are verified and analyzed by extensive aquatic experiments. Besides, a pitch maneuvering strategy based on a finite state machine is designed to realize the excellent vertical motion. Based on the motion characteristics of the 3-D maneuverability analysis, the feasibility of the planning task is verified by the dynamic model, and the kinematic constraints are obtained simultaneously. Further, the 3-D path planning method is composed of three main components, including the global path generation with gliding motion, obstacle avoidance path planning with dolphin-like motion, and path smoothing. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Pages166
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/44435
Collection复杂系统管理与控制国家重点实验室_先进机器人
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王健. 仿生滑翔机器海豚的多模态运动控制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2021.
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