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虚拟现实系统中的接触交互接口研究
其他题名Research on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Reality System
朱海兵
学位类型工学博士
导师原魁
2003-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词虚拟现实 接触交互接口 手势输入 触觉反馈 力觉反馈 姿态跟踪 Virtual Reality Haptic Interface Gesture Input Tactile Feedback Force Feedback Orientation Tracking
摘要在现实世界中,手是人们操作物体的重要手段。人们用手与物质世界进行交互, 用手来抓取并感知物体,用手来表达思想。同样在虚拟现实系统中,人们也希望 摒弃传统的鼠标键盘之类的设备,通过使用接触交互接口,以一种更加直接的方 式自由地操作虚拟物体,就象在日常生活中执行各种操作那样灵巧而自然。 本文研制开发了一种称之为GAS-Glove的数据手套作为虚拟环境中的手势输 入设备。它安装有16个弯曲传感器,该传感器具有很好的线性度与可靠性。通 过对测量电路的改进及传感器布局的优化,使得CAS-Glove数据手套可以准确测 量出手指、腕部各关节的位置及运动。本文在基于DSP的据采集系统中采用了过 采样技术、数字滤波技术,提高了弯曲传感器信号的分辨率并且抑制了噪声的影 响。本文还提出了四指标定法,以提高手指弯曲角度的测量精度。 力觉反馈通常被分为触觉反馈和力反馈。触觉反馈接口能够大大增强虚拟环境 中操作者的触觉感受,它具有设计简单、成本低廉等特点。为了实现较为真实的 触觉反馈,我们开发了两种触觉反馈接口。一种是在指端安装了五个振动电机的 触觉反馈接口,它能为操作者提供弹击、触摸、振动等触觉信息。另一种是基于 音圈电机的触觉反馈接口,它具有较高带宽,能够为操作者提供更为复杂的表面 触觉信息。 本文研究了一种新型的点式力觉反馈系统PEDFinger。它可以和数据手套配 合使用构成力觉反馈数据手套。它采用比例电磁铁作为其执行元件。通过钢丝绳 一弹簧管传动方式把执行元件的驱动力传递到指端力觉反馈装置。指端力觉反馈 装置紧凑而易于调节,可以适合于大多数人使用。本文采用模糊+积分控制器实 现了对反馈力的闭环控制,并分别在基于PC和基于DSP的系统上实现了该力觉 反馈系统,为虚拟现实系统提供了一种具有较高性能价格比的力觉反馈接口。 本文还研制了一种更加有效的力觉反馈系统ForceFeel。它能有效防止虚拟 手指不必要地嵌入虚拟物体中。它采用了单神经元自适应PID控制算法实现了对 时变非线性系统的鲁棒控制。它所提供的反馈力可以使虚拟现实系统中的操作者 获得更好的沉浸感。 本文采用了一种利用磁场传感器+加速度计+弯曲传感器对手臂相对基坐标系 的姿态跟踪方法。该方法采用基于四元数的姿态算法,利用三维磁场传感器和三 维加速度计对上臂的姿态进行跟踪。利用弯曲传感器对肘关节的弯曲角度进行测 量。利用倾角传感器测量手腕的俯仰角和滚动角。最后由这些信息确
其他摘要The communication mode that seems most relevant for manipulating physical objects is hand motion.People use this mode to act on the world,to grasp and explore objects,and to express ideas.It is hoped that by using haptic interfaces other than traditional devices such as keyboard and mice,the user could manipulate the virtual objects directly in a free form.Just like they perform most everyday tasks dexterity and naturally with hands. The CAS.Glove has been developed for the virtual environments as a gesture input device.It is mounted sixteen our patented flexible sensors that is linear and reliable. With improved circuits and optimized layout of flexible sensors,CAS-Glove could measure the position and movement Of the fingers and wrist accurately.To increase the resolution and reduce the noise,oversampling and digital filtering techniques are applied to a DSP.based data acquisition system.A novel four.finger calibration method is presented for high.precision joint-sensing. The haptic feedback modality groups tactile feedback and force feedback.Tactile feedback could significantly enhance touch perception for virtual environment applications with minimal design complexity and cost.In order to create realistic tactile feedback.we developed two kinds Of tactile interfaces.One is mounted five vibro-tactile actuators on each fingertip.it could provide the user with sense of tapping,contacting and vibrating.Another is based on vibrating voice coil with high bandwidth.it could produce much more complex contact surface information associated with tactile feedback. A new kind of point type force feedback interface named PEDFinger has been developed.Generally.it is used with a data-glove as a force.sensing glove.An improved proportional electromagnet is used as the actuator of this device.Force is transmitted from actuator to effector via steel cable.spring pipe.With a compact and adjustable structure.it could be fixed on almost every user's fingers.A fuzzy plus integral controller is applied to the force control.Two versions Of PEDFinger.the PC.based system and the DSP-based system have been developed.Both of them could provide a high performance and low cost solution for the VR application. A more efficient force feedback interface called ForceFeel has been developed.It could actively prevent operator's fingers from moving into a restricted simulation space.A single neuron adaptive PID contr01 algorithm was implemented for the robust control 0f this time.varying and nonlinear system.The forces exerted on the user's fingers by it could maximize the sense of immersion in a virtual environment. The orientation relative to an Earth.fixed reference frame of limb segment is determined through the use of an attached MAB sensor.A quaternion-based complementary filter algorithm is implemented for processing the output data from three orthogonal magnetometers and three orthogonal linear accelerometers to determine the
馆藏号XWLW723
其他标识符723
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/5751
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
朱海兵. 虚拟现实系统中的接触交互接口研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2003.
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