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移动机器人系统设计与视觉导航控制研究
李磊
Subtype工学博士
Thesis Advisor谭民
2003-05-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral中国科学院自动化研究所
Degree Discipline控制理论与控制工程
Keyword移动机器人 系统设计 视觉系统 导航与定位 Mobile Robot System Design Vision System Navigation And Localization
Abstract随着机器人技术的发展,机器人的应用领域不断扩大。人们希望机器人不仅 能够在生产车间环境下完成大规模的装配任务,而且还能在室内、外环境下完成 复杂的任务。上述任务的完成需要一个具有良好的可靠性和开放性的实验平台。 因此,开发研制以工业领域、服务业领域为应用背景的,且易于用户二次开发的 移动机器人平台具有很好的市场潜力和研究意义。本文针对室内移动机器人平台 的设计及其导航与定位问题开展研究工作。 第一,本文对移动机器人的运动机构、控制体系结构进行了分析,综述了移 动机器人导航与定位技术的主要研究内容及发展方向,并对本文的选题背景、主 要组成结构做了介绍。 第二,本文提出并设计了移动机器人CA。SIA.I的机械结构、移动机构、传感 系统,开发研制了移动机器人CASIA.I。该移动平台综合了传统的三轮、四轮、 六轮和全方位移动平台的优、缺点,机械结构上采用正16棱柱外形:运动机构 采用差分驱动系统:两驱动轮和两具有悬挂系统的平衡轮正交布置于底盘的直径 上;传感系统包括一组光学轴编码器构成的内部信息传感器和一组超声传感环、 两组红外传感环及一个主动视觉系统等外部信息传感器。 第三,针对移动机器人的导航工作环境为非结构化环境,无法事先得到环境 的精确信息,需通过传感器获取并不断地更新环境信息,以实时地规划其运动, 本文提出了一种基于行为的轮式移动机器人CASIA-I导航方法。该方法中的机 器人导航控制结构采用由各行为模块构成的包容式结构。各行为模块可根据传感 器输入,并结合高层行为抑制低层行为,决定其行为输出。 第四,本文提出并设计了基于DSP和嵌入式PCI04+系统为图像处理单元的 移动机器人CASIA-I主动视觉传感系统,并针对该视觉系统提出了一种基于多 项式拟合的摄像机标定方法。 第五,本文提出一种基于门牌路标的移动机器人导航与定位方法及目标搜索 策略。该方法通过视觉系统对消失点的视觉伺服实现机器人平行于走廊两侧的墙 壁行进,并通过对门、门牌的定位与识别、倾斜校正、门牌号码分割与识别等一 系列图像处理算法,实现移动机器人CASIA-I在走廊环境下的导航与定位。 最后,本文对所取得的研究成果进行了总结,并指出需继续开展的工作。
Other AbstractWith the development of robotics technology,the application of robotics has been extended more and more widely.The robot is required not only to complete some large-scale assemblage tasks in works,but also to achieve complex missions in indoor and outdoor environment.To accomplish those missions mentioned above,an experimental mobile platform with good stability and openness is needed.Therefore, to develop a mobile robot,which is used in industry area or service area and prone to redeveloped by users,should have very good market potential and research value. This thesis focuses on the design of all indoor mobile robot platform,navigation and localization problems for indoor mobile robots. Firstly,the locomotion framework and control architecture of mobile robots are analyzed.The main research contents and development directions of navigation and localization for mobile robots are summarized.The background and structure of this thesis are also introduced. Secondly,this paper proposes and designs the locomotion framework,sensing system and control system for the mobile robot CASIA-I and develops the robot.The mobile platform integrates the merits and shortcomings of the traditional three-wheel platform,four-wheel platform,six-wheel platform and Omni-directional platform,its platform shape is 1 6-prism frame,its locomotion system is a dual-differential drive system:two drive wheels and two castors with a suspension device each are put perpendicularly on the diameter of the chassis circle.The sensing system consists of a set of optical encoders serving as interior sensor,a set of sonar,two sets of IR detectors and an active vision system as exterior sensors. Thirdly,because the navigation environment of mobile robot is non-structure, which can not be acquired in advance.but need to sense the environment in real time by sensors to plan its movement,a behavior-based navigation method for wheeled mobile robot is proposed by the thesis.The navigation control architecture for the mobile robot is subsumption architecture that composes of several behavior,based modules.Each behavior module can decide its own output according to the sensors' inputs and the restrain to lower behavior layer by upper behavior. Fourthly, This thesis proposes and designs an active vision sensing system for the mobile robot CASIA-I.The sensing system comprises the image processing units based on DSP and embedded PC 1 04 Plus.In addition,a camera calibration method based on polynomial fit for the vision system is put forward. Fifthly,this paper proposes a doorplate landmark based navigation and localization method and target searching strategies for mobile robots.In the method,the mobile robot can move forward parallel to the two sides wall of corridor by visual servoing on the vanishing point.In addition,the robot Can navigate and localize itself in corridor by a set of image processing algorithms,such as door and doorplate position and
shelfnumXWLW724
Other Identifier724
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/5752
Collection毕业生_博士学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李磊. 移动机器人系统设计与视觉导航控制研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2003.
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