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楼道环境中移动机器人SLAM问题关键技术研究
其他题名Research of the Key Techniques on the SLAM Problem of Mobile Robot in Corridor Environment
臧宇彤
学位类型工学博士
导师原魁
2006-09-30
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学科专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词移动机器人 粒子滤波 同步定位和地图建立 环境探索 楼道环境 多传感器信息融合 Mobile Robot Particle Filter Simultaneous Localization And Map Building Environment Exploration Corridor Environment Multi-sensors Fusion
中文摘要随着智能移动机器人逐渐走进人们的日常生活,人们对智能移动机器人系统的需求越来越迫切,移动机器人研究也进入了崭新的发展阶段。机器人在环境中执行任务的过程可以看成是一系列导航和定位的运动控制过程,如果没有环境的地图信息,机器人很难完成这种复杂的导航和定位工作,因此一张好的环境地图是移动机器人完成任务的根本保障。随着机器人技术的不断发展,人们已经不再满足过去那种由操作人员事先手工的测量出环境地图然后再交给机器人使用的方式,而是希望机器人自身就具备建立其所在的环境地图的能力。基于这种要求,机器人自主建立环境地图技术受到研究人员越来越多的重视,并被认为是实现真正意义上全自主移动机器人的关键。本文结合楼道环境中巡逻保安机器人的实际需要,对楼道环境中移动机器人自主建立地图的关键技术进行了比较深入的研究,论文的工作主要包括以下内容: (1) 对移动机器人的发展及应用进行了回顾和展望,阐述了机器人同步定位和地图建立的研究意义和价值。 (2) 深入分析了当前机器人同步定位和地图建立的主流算法,对各种算法的建地图原理进行了详细的推导,对各种算法的优缺点进行了总结,并分析了算法之间的内在联系,为设计适应我们自己特殊应用的机器人建地图算法提供理论上的指导。 (3) 提出了一种建立楼道环境的分步骤粒子滤波方法。该算法考虑了楼道环境的特点,无需对环境进行人为的改变就可以实现楼道环境的地图构建工作,由于采用分步骤的方法,使得机器人建立环境地图所需的时间也大为减小。 (4) 基于分步骤粒子滤波算法的需要,在前人研究成果的基础上,采用多传感器信息融合方法设计了一种具有重复性和深度优先搜索特性的具备完整探索环境能力的FRT环境探索算法。 (5) 针对自主研制开发的通用移动机器人平台,提出了一种主从结构多处理器的分布式并行处理方式,并设计了一种适合于楼道环境建地图任务的移动机器人传感器配置结构。此外,通过实际实验获得了粒子滤波算法中的运动模型和观测模型,并介绍了算法实现过程中的几个关键技术的设计方法。 (6) 最后,本文对所做的研究工作和取得的研究成果进行了总结,并指出了下一步需要继续开展的工作。本文的研究内容为今后开发具有自主建地图能力的移动机器人打下了良好的基础。
英文摘要As the intelligent mobile robot gradually comes into people’s life, the needs of intelligent mobile robot is becoming more and more urgent to people and the research of mobile robot is coming into a new developing age. The process of mobile robot performing tasks can be looked as a series process of navigation and localization control. It is hard for robot to fulfill this kind of navigation and localization control process if there isn’t an environment map ready for using. Therefore, a good environment map is the key to ensure the mobile robot to implement the tasks. With the development of mobile robot, people has been no longer satisfying the traditional way of using the mobile robot which often offers an environment map built by mankind in advance for the mobile robot to use, but hope the mobile robot itself has the ability to build the map of environment in which it lies. As this need emerges people are paying more attention to the technology of building the environment map for mobile robot, moreover, the development of this technology are being looked as the key to realize the genuine autonomous mobile robot. The key technologies in building a map of corridor environment by mobile robot are discussed in detail in this thesis. The main contents of this thesis are listed below: (1) Both the development and the application of mobile robot are retrospected and prospected. Moreover, the meaning and value of simultaneous localization and map building for mobile robot are also addressed. (2) The mainstream mobile robot simultaneous localization and map building algorithms are analyzed in detail, the principles of different kinds of map building algorithm are derived clearly and both the advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms are summarized. In addition, the relations of these mainstream algorithms are analyzed. (3) A special two-step particle filter algorithm is provided to solve the map building problems in the corridor environment. The characteristics of the corridor environment are taken into consideration, and in this way building a corridor environment map can be realized without the need to change the environment itself by mankind in advance. (4) A special FRT exploration approach is provided based on the multi-sensors information fusion approach and the fruits of the previous researchers. This FRT exploration approach has the traits of repetition, depth-first search and the ability to explore the entire unknown environment. (5) A new distributed master/slave control architecture is presented and a special mobile robot‘s sensors configuration suited for the map building task in a corridor environment is designed. In addition, the kinematic model and measurement model are achieved in practical experiment and some of the disign methods of key techniques are also introduced. (6) Finally, the obtained research results are summarized and future work is addressed.
馆藏号XWLW1049
其他标识符200318014602990
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/5955
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
臧宇彤. 楼道环境中移动机器人SLAM问题关键技术研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2006.
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