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子母式仿生机器鱼的建模,控制与协作研究
其他题名Research on Modeling, Control and Cooperation of a Marsupial Biomimetic Robotic Fish
周超
学位类型工学博士
导师谭民 ; 曹志强
2008-05-22
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词仿生机器鱼 子母式机器鱼 微小型机器鱼 运动学建模 倒游控制 深度控制 子母协作 Biomimetic Robotic Fish Marsupial Robotic Fish Team Miniature Robotic Fish Kinematic Modeling Backward Swimming Depth Control Daughter-mother Cooperation
摘要科学技术的不断发展,给仿生机器鱼的研究带来新的机遇和挑战。我们结合生物界中有袋类的动物(如袋鼠)的特点,鱼类运动的优点和以前一些相关工作,提出一种子母式机器鱼系统。 首先,针对在复杂水环境中工作的仿生机器鱼系统开展研究,研制一套子母式仿生机器鱼系统,包括一个有子机舱的、运动能力较强的母机器鱼和体积较小的子机器鱼。给出母机器鱼和子机器鱼的结构设计和仿生运动方法。 其次,基于母机器鱼和子机器鱼关节结构的特性,建立了机器鱼运动的动力学和运动学联合模型。该模型建立机器鱼在自由运动状态下的拉格朗日函数;将机器鱼运动中受力简化为侧面压力、迎流阻力和摩擦阻力。根据拉格朗日第二方程求解机器鱼的运动与机器鱼尾部摆动规律的关系,进而计算运动学参数;根据仿真结果优化运动参数。 第三,针对子母式机器鱼的运动特点与协作需求,研究机器鱼的运动控制方法与策略。分别使用正负压力分析法和机器鱼的运动学模型,分析机器鱼的运动受力,给出了一种新型的仿鲹科机器鱼倒退游动方法。利用一种可调整位置的配重块结构,改变机器鱼的重心位置,进而实现机器鱼俯仰姿态的调节。对一定速度下机器鱼的深度与俯仰角的关系进行建模,提出由于尾部形变引起的俯仰姿态变化的补偿方法。 第四,针对子母机器鱼的协作要求,基于机器鱼的波动推进,结合运动控制和传感器信息处理,给出了自主避障算法和主动趋光算法,进而提出动态光源跟踪方法。此方法用于机器鱼子母分离等过程中的运动规划,以实现协作动作。给出一个带有通讯机制的有限状态机用于描述子母鱼协作时的多机器鱼运动。完成系统样机的实现以及实验验证。 最后,对所开展的工作进行了总结,并指出了需要进一步研究的工作。
其他摘要The research works on biomimetic robotic fish is faced with new opportunities and new challenges with the development of science and technology. Inspired by marsupial animals, e.g. kangaroo, the characteristics of fish’s motions and the relative works, a marsupial robotic fish system is proposed for the purpose of resolving contradictions of applications in this thesis. Firstly, a bio-inspired marsupial robotic fish team composed of two kinds of robotic fish is proposed. A miniature robotic fish, as the daughter robotic fish, can swim in some narrow environments. A mother robotic fish, with a cabin to transport the daughter, gets strong ability of movement to improve the team mobility and endurance of the team. Structures of these two robotic fish are presented and fish-like motions are introduced. Secondly, this thesis deals with the kinematic modeling and analysis of a free-swimming, multi-link biomimetic robot fish driven by a flexible rear body and oscillatory tail fin. The robot fish is simplified to multi-jointed plates according to both hydrodynamic characteristics and the mechanical structure, and a model of freely swimming robot fish is built based on the Lagrangian function. The hydrodynamic force acting on the robot fish is divided into three parts: the pressure on links, the approach stream pressure and the frictional force. By solving Lagrange's equation of the second kind, the movement of robot fish is obtained and motion parameters are optimized based on the consumed power of motors. Thirdly, the motion control and decision are discussed in response to the features of the robotic fish’s motions and the need of cooperation. The swimming backward for biomimetic carangiform robot fish is analyzed and implemented. The swimming law of the carangiform robot fish is modified according to the European Eel swimming mode based on the multiple-link structure to implement the backward motion. A pitching and depth control method is proposed to perform 3-D locomotion underwater. The method of pitching is based on the barycenter-adjustor which can change the robotic fish’s center of gravity by moving an inside weight. The pitching angle of the robot fish is analyzed, and a control method with deformation compensation is introduced to adjust the turning angle of the barycenter-adjustor’s servo according to the depth feedback. The information provided by infrared sensors and photosensitive sensors is analyzed and applied to the algorithms of obstacle avoidance, the light source searching and the dynamic light source tracking. A typical task of daughter-mother following is given to show the cooperation of the team, and a heterogeneous communication-based finite state machine is presented for task modeling. Experiments are carried out to verify the system. Finally, the obtained results are summarized and future work is addressed.
馆藏号XWLW1199
其他标识符200518014628016
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/6062
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
周超. 子母式仿生机器鱼的建模,控制与协作研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2008.
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