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微小型无人直升机导航和航向控制方法研究
其他题名Navigation and Heading Control Methods for Miniature Unmanned Helicopter
柏猛
学位类型工学博士
导师侯增广 ; 赵晓光
2009-05-25
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词捷联惯导系统 组合导航系统 Unscented卡尔曼滤波 系统辨识 模糊控制 Pid控制 Strapdown Initial Navigation System Integrated Navigation System Unscented Kalman Filter System Identification Fuzzy Control Pid Control
摘要微小型无人直升机是近年来发展迅速的一种空中机器人,在军用和民用方面都有非常 广阔的应用前景。导航方法和控制器设计是无人直升机飞行控制系统设计的核心内容, 是实现无人直升机自主飞行的关键。本文针对微小型无人直升机的特点,对微小型无人 直升机导航方法、姿态建模和航向控制进行研究,具体内容如下: 第一,介绍了微小型无人直升机的发展现状,然后对与微小型无人直升机导航系统相关的信 息融合方法进行了总结,最后介绍了无人直升机的特点和典型的控制方法。 第二,介绍了捷联惯导系统(strapdown inertial navigation system,SINS)基本的姿态、速度和位置解算方法,并在此基础上给出了基于姿 态误差角和四元数的SINS非线性误差方程。 第三,介绍了unscented卡尔曼滤波(unscented Kalman filtering,UKF)方法,研究了基于数字罗盘辅助实现SINS粗对准,再利用UKF进行 精对准的低成本SINS静基座初始对准的方法。 在此基础上,提出一种在数字罗盘辅助下采用UKF进行误差估计的低成本SINS/GPS/数字 罗盘组合导航方法。仿真结果表明,与低成本SINS/GPS组合导航方法相比,低成本 SINS/GPS/数字罗盘组合导航方法能较好地解决偏航角的误差估计问题,提高导航系统性能。 第四,根据直升机运动学方程和微小型无人直升机空气动力学,得到了微小型无人 直升机待辨识姿态控制模型。在此基础上,根据本文所研究的微小型无人直升机飞行实验数 据,辨识得到了横纵向通道的耦合模型和偏航通道的单输入单输出模型。 通过与飞行实验数据比较,验证了所建立模型的正确性。 第五,采用模糊控制方法实现了微小型无人直升机的航向控制,然后为了提高模糊控 制器的稳态性能,针对微小型无人直升机偏航通道设计了模糊PID控制器。为了整定 模糊PID控制器中PID的参数,提出了一种采用免疫优化算法确定PID参数的方法。 最后,为了改善在小初始误差情况下模糊PID控制器的性能,提出一种自适 应切换模糊PID控制方法。仿真结果表明,本文所设计的基于模糊控制的航向控制器能 有效解决微小型无人直升机的航向控制问题。 最后,对本文所取得的研究结果进行了总结,并指出了需要继续开展的工作。
其他摘要As an aerial robot, miniature unmanned helicopter has a broad application prospect in military and civil fields, and has been developed greatly in recent years. Navigation method and controller design are the key contents when designing unmanned helicopter control system, and the techniques of navigation and control are pivotal to realize autonomous flight of unmanned helicopter. In thought of the practical needs of miniature unmanned helicopter, this thesis focuses on the navigation method, attitude modeling and heading control, the main context is as follows: Firstly, the general research development of miniature unmanned helicopter was introduced. Then the information fusion methods adopted in navigation system were reviewed. Moreover, the characteristics of miniature unmanned helicopter and typical control methods used in miniature unmanned helicopter control system were surveyed. Secondly, the basic calculative methods of strapdown inertial navigation (SINS) attitude, velocity and position were introduced. Then the nonlinear error models of SINS based on attitude error angles and quaternions were given. Thirdly, unscented Kalman filtering (UKF) method was introduced, and an initial alignment method for low cost SINS was studied. In the initial alignment of low cost SINS, the coarse alignment was assisted by digital compass and UKF was used in the fine alignment. On this basis, a low cost SINS/GPS/digital compass integrated navigation method was proposed, in which the digital compass was applied to yaw angle measurement and UKF was adopted to estimate the errors of integrated navigation system. The simulation results demonstrated that compared with the low cost SINS/GPS integrated navigation method, the low cost SINS/GPS/digital compass integrated navigation method can estimate the error of yaw angle and improve the performance of SINS/GPS integrated navigation system effectively. Fourthly, the identification model of attitude was developed based on the motion equations of unmanned helicopter and the miniature unmanned helicopter aerodynamics. Then a parameterized coupling dynamical angle model of roll and pitch channel and a single input single output model of yaw channel for a miniature unmanned helicopter were obtained by using time-domain system identification technique based on the outdoor flight experimental data. These models were verified by comparing the models output with the output collected during flight test. Fifthly, by employing...
馆藏号XWLW1304
其他标识符200518014628002
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/6159
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
柏猛. 微小型无人直升机导航和航向控制方法研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2009.
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