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面向测试的RFID天线设计与实现
其他题名Design and Realization of RFID Antennas Oriented Test
王宏伟
学位类型工学博士
导师郁文生
2009-05-28
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词射频识别技术(rfid) 测试 天线 Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) Test Antenna
摘要射频识别(RFID)技术是一种基于射频原理实现的非接触式自动识别技术,有着重要的理论意义和广泛的应用价值。近年来,UHF频段的反射调制式RFID技术的研究与发展较为迅速。本文在面向测试的射频识别天线设计与实现方面取得了一些有意义的研究成果,基本内容如下: 第一,分析了RFID读写器和标签的工作原理和特点,阐述了当前RFID测试技术,并指出目前存在的问题。以烟草制造业中RFID技术的典型应用为例,介绍了读写器网络部署与规划方法,给出网络部署的形式化描述,以及HF及UHF频段的选用标准,同时对当前比较流行的防碰撞算法作出改进,引入四-二叉树防碰撞算法,对提高读取效率提供理论依据。针对标签的特性测试方法,开发出面向RFID系统的模拟自由空间的暗室环境,并给出关键技术指标。 第二,针对50欧阻抗天线,给出绝对及相对两种增益测试方法、方向图的测试步骤以及等功率线的方向图测试方法。针对该等功率线方向图测试方法,开发出一套自动测试设备。RCS与标签的读取距离息息相关,RCS的测量则对标签天线设计提供了可借鉴的性能指标。扫频RCS测量技术则从时域角度分析了目标RCS分布信息。另外,本文重点研究了标签天线端口复阻抗的测试方法,从直接法、镜像法、比较法、间接法及测试架的设计等诸多方面给出相关测试方案。 第三, 提出了几种高性能标签天线的设计方法:磁棒、面IFA、EBG材料、缝隙天线、平衡馈电及物理方式的引入,降低了标签周围环境或标签贴附物体材料的属性对标签性能的影响;平面全向天线、二维全向天线、Albano天线及极子形式的三维标签天线的引入弥补了标签作用不灵敏区域。除此之外,本文还研究了其他高性能RFID天线的设计方法,譬如高辐射效率、强鲁棒性、小型化、宽带及阻抗匹配等特性。 第四,研究了RFID标签天线制作技术,及标签参数对天线性能的作用,其中主要考虑辐射面选材、底板材料及材料厚度对标签性能的影响。实验证明标签性能依赖于天线形式及天线材料,银墨材料的引入有效地降低标签成本,却以降低阻抗、增益和辐射效率为代价,辐射效率主要依赖于银墨的多少而不是厚度。
其他摘要Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a kind of automatic identification technology based on non-contact RF principle. Recently, the research and application of RFID develop rapidly, by for UHF band backscatter modulation technology. Key components of RFID systems, which include the test system and relevant antennas, are studied in this paper. The major contents are as follows. First, we analyze systematically the operating mechanism and characteristics of RFID reader and tag, and then elaborate current test technologies. Issues for RFID test have been stated in this paper. Take the RFID application in tobacco manufacturing for an example. Network deployment and programming for reader antenna, as well as formalized deployment are studied. The criterion for the selection of HF or UHF band is discussed. Comparison of various anti-collision algorithms is indexed, and an advanced algorithm of self adapting appears in this paper. We systematically study the methods for test of tag, including sensitivity test, readability rate, differential Radio Cross Section (ΔRCS) and related tests. For the tests, we develop a chamber for imitation of free space, and key technical indexes can be found in this paper. Second, this paper focuses on the test methods for RFID antennas. For 50 Ohm impedance port antenna, ones of testing for gains are given by absolute and relative methods, in addition to radiation pattern. RFID-oriented test method, named by equivalent power line pattern is given in this paper, along with the automatic test equipment. This method can be used to direct the deployment of RFID reader antennas in reality. RCS is closely interrelated to the range of RFID tag, especially for passive one. Sweep-frequency technique directly acts on the site and time for RCS. Relative RCS test technologies are included in this paper. In addition, oriented to complex impedance of tag antenna, this paper describes methods for measuring it, by direct manner, mirror method, comparison, indirect process and testing jig. Through some of these methods, the complex impedance test may be available to employ. Third, in connection with requirements for characters of RFID antenna, this paper states several design methods for tag antennas with high qualities, such as insensitive to metal environment and surroundings, omni directivity, robust, high radiation efficiency, muliti-frequencies and miniaturization. For insensitive to surroundings, many methods are provided: ferrite c...
馆藏号XWLW1351
其他标识符200618014628015
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/6172
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王宏伟. 面向测试的RFID天线设计与实现[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2009.
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