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Alternative TitlePower management strategy of PEM fuel cell hybrid power sources
Thesis Advisor刘国平
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral中国科学院自动化研究所
Degree Discipline控制理论与控制工程
Keyword质子交换膜(Pem)燃料电池 混合动力 建模 动态特性 功率分配控制 优化 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane(Pem) Fuel Cell Hybrid Modeling Power Management Optimization
Abstract随着能源危机与环境污染的问题的日益凸现,为了克服非再生矿物能源的枯竭可能带来的危机,人们逐渐将注意力转移到新的能源结构上来。质子交换膜(PEM)燃料电池具有操作温度低、采用固体交换膜、零污染等特点被视为可替代传统能源并更适合移动车辆应用的新型能源。虽然质子交换膜燃料电池商业化还有很长的路要走,但质子交换膜燃料电池仍然成为了各大汽车公司和研究机构研究的热点,并相继推出了自己的燃料电池原型车。 目前,仅仅依靠质子交换膜燃料电池并不能达到传统内燃机的性能这一点已经成为共识,因此出现了燃料电池混合动力系统。燃料电池混合动力系统含有至少一个快速辅助源(电池或者超级电容)来对燃料电池较慢的动态特性进行补偿,并且回收制动能量。由于辅助源的存在,燃料电池混合动力系统的能量管理策略对整个系统的性能和寿命有着非常重要的影响。 本文对质子交换膜燃料电池混合动力系统的功率分配控制方法进行了研究,在对 PEM 燃料电池、电池和超级电容进行建模的基础上,比较了不同构型、不同辅助源的PEM燃料电池混合动力系统的动态特性,并研究了基于离线优化和在线优化的 PEM 燃料电池/蓄电池混合动力系统的功率分配控制问题。功率分配控制研究采用的模型具有一般性,可以推广到其它的 PEM 燃料电池混合动力系统。 论文的主要工作和贡献包括: 1. 利用质子交换膜燃料电池的电化学反应机理,建立了质子交换膜燃料电池电堆的输出特性的动态模型。考虑到功率分配和PEM燃料电池混合动力系统的动态特性仿真对模型的要求,分别建立了带有温度影响的蓄电池内阻模型、DC/DC 变换器状态平均模型和直流电机简化模型。 2. 对负载功率变化时,不同辅助源、不同构型的 PEM 燃料电池混合动力系统的动态特性进行了比较,得到了不同 PEM 燃料电池混合动力系统的特点,可以指导实际应用。 3. 提出了一种基于离线优化的质子交换膜燃料电池/蓄电池混合动力系统的模糊控制功率分配方法,通过优化模糊控制器的隶属度函数来得到混合动力系统功率分配模糊控制器的参数和混合度设计参数,并分析了优化结果对模型参数变化的敏感性。通过与其它功率分配方法的比较,表明该方法可以达到较好的经济性能。 4. 提出了一种基于在线优化的质子交换膜燃料电池/蓄电池混合动力系统的功率分配方法,考虑到在线优化方法的实时性要求,在 MATLAB 中进行在线优化问题的求解,编写了通讯模块实现 MATLAB 和 NetCon 控制器的数据交互,并通过实际实验验证了该在线优化方法的可行性与有效性。
Other AbstractThe increasing public awareness of energy crisis and environmental protection has led to increased interest in new energy resources. Polymer electrolyte membrane(PEM) fuel cell has been showing up as a promising alternative due to its low operation temperature, solid polymer electrolyte and zero emission in stationary and automotive applications. It is widely accepted that PEM fuel cell only system can't achieve performance similar to internal combustion engines. Fuel cell hybrid power system includes at least one other energy sources with fast dynamics, such as battery or supercapacitor, to compensate the slow dynamics of the fuel cell and collect the regenerate energy. Because of different characteristics of multiple power sources, the efficiency and the life of the hybrid power system mainly depend on the power management strategy. In this thesis, the focal point of the work is the power management strategy of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power system. The main contributions of this thesis include: 1.Firstly, on the basis of the electrochemical principles, a dynamic model of a PEM fuel cell V-I characteristics is proposed. Also, the internal insistence model with temperature effect of the lead-acid battery, the average state model of DC/DC converters, the reduced DC motor model are built in this thesis. 2. Secondly, some simulation results of the dynamics of different PEM fuel cell hybrid system when load is changing are presented in this paper. From these results, we can get the characteristics of different PEM fuel cell hybrid systems. 3. Thirdly, an optimal fuzzy power control and management strategy of the PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid power system is studied. Some key parameters of the member function of the fuzzy controller are optimized. By comparison with other power management strategy, The proposed strategy shows good fuel economy. 4. Fourthly, a real time optimization control strategy for power management in a PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid power system is developed. To reduce the calculation work of the controller, the real time optimization problem is solved in personal computer with MATLAB and the necessary data is exchanged by communication module between the controller and the personal computer.
Other Identifier200718014628010
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李春彦. 质子交换膜燃料电池混合动力系统的功率分配控制方法研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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