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基于视觉的移动机器人室内定位与导航关键问题研究
Alternative TitleThe key problem on Vision Based Localization and navigation of Indoor Mobile Robots
董小明
Subtype工学博士
Thesis Advisor原魁
2010-05-30
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral中国科学院自动化研究所
Degree Discipline控制理论与控制工程
Keyword视觉 定位 导航 运动估计 Vision Localization Navigation Motion Estimation
Abstract视觉导航具有采用其他方式传感器导航所无法比拟的优点,是目前移动机器人智能导航的主要发展方向。本文在国家自然科学基金及863项目课题的资助下,对基于视觉的室内机器人的定位与导航问题进行了研究。内容主要包括如下几个方面: 第一、对基于视觉的移动机器人定位与导航的应用背景、研究方向、研究进展等进行了综述。 第二、为弥补普通镜头视野狭窄的缺点,就全方位视觉鱼眼镜头相关问题进行了分析;并利用鱼眼镜头的特性,设计了适于鱼眼识别的人工路标,以实现移动机器人利用鱼眼视觉进行定位的功能。 第三、为了提高定位的精度,提出一种在双目视觉中引入目标跟踪的方法,在CamShift跟踪框架下,融合目标的多方面特征并实时更新,取得了鲁棒的跟踪性能,从而提高了机器人相对于自然目标的定位精度;并进一步就基于人工路标二维码的单目和双目定位问题进行了对比研究。 第四、提出了一种利用机器视觉进行实时位姿估计的视觉里程计算法,并对该算法的适用条件及误差进行了分析。该视觉里程计结合室内的具体环境,选用两种特征点结合的方法以进行鲁棒的里程估计。实验证明该方法在移动机器人做短距离和长距离运动时都可以取得良好的估算效果。 第五、结合视觉里程计与人工路标二维码,设计了移动机器人在室内导航以及实时地图构建的方法。实验证明,该方法弥补了自然路标的不稳定及机器人机械码盘的打滑误差问题,建立的地图精确性更高。 最后,对本文所做的研究工作及取得的成果进行了总结,指出了需要继续开展的工作。 关键词: 视觉, 定位, 导航, 运动估计
Other AbstractThe research in robot navigation and localization is to enable mobile robots to determine their position in environment real-time and reliably, which is necessary for mobile robots to navigate autonomously. Vision based localization has many advantages that other methods are unsurpassable and has become an important research field. Supported by the 863 National High-tech Project and National Natural Scientific Foundation, some key techniques of vision based localization and navigation for indoor mobile robots are studied in this thesis. The main contents of this paper are listed as follows: Firstly, the background and development status of mobile robots localization are briefly reviewed; a survey of mobile robot navigation based on vision is presented. Secondly,to remedy the disadvatage of popular lens,we design a landmark based on the unique character of the fisheye lens,which makes the robot get its position in the wide range easily. Thirdly, to improve the accuracy of the localization . we integrate the Cam shift tracking with multi-cus fusion in object recognition,then make use of the disparity of the binocular to gain the position of the object. The research of the localization based on the artificial landmark MR2 is also designed and the more accurate result is obtained. Fourthly, a real-time visual odometry algorithm with monocular is presented,furthermore, the validity and error of the algorithm are also analyzed. The method is based on two assumptions: indoor robots are moving on the planar ground and the camera view is in the planar structure. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve good precision. Fifthly,integrating the visual odometry and the artificial landmark MR2, we design a map building method, which gains the high accuracy in the map construction of mobile robot navigation. Finally, the achieved research results are summarized and future work is addressed.
shelfnumXWLW1466
Other Identifier200718014628005
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/6267
Collection毕业生_博士学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
董小明. 基于视觉的移动机器人室内定位与导航关键问题研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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