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Alternative TitleA Minimally Invasive Surgical Robot for Vascular Interventions: Design and Interactive Control
Thesis Advisor侯增广
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral中国科学院自动化研究所
Degree Discipline控制理论与控制工程
Keyword介入手术机器人 介入手术模拟 柔顺控制 暂态性能 自适应神经网络控制 Minimally Invasive Surgical Robot Vascular Intervention Simulation Compliance Control Transient Performance Adaptive Neural Network Control
Abstract心脑血管疾病是危害全世界人类健康的“第一杀手”。微创血管介入治疗手术是当前治疗心脑血管疾病的重要手段,与传统的开放式手术相比,微创血管介入手术具有对患者的伤害更小、大幅度减小患者的住院治疗时间等诸多优点。随着机器人技术的不断发展,将微创血管介入手术机器人应用于医疗临床成为可能。微创血管介入手术机器人可以准确地规划手术过程,并能够减少X射线对医护人员身体的伤害、降低手术医生的工作强度。微创血管介入手术机器人的研究与开发,对于促进我国医疗机器人的发展具有十分重要意义,并能够带动周边交叉学科的发展。本文针对国家863计划先进制造技术领域重点项目“高端微创外科手术机器人”的两个课题“微创血管介入手术机器人”(2009AA044003)和“微创血管介入手术机器人实用系统研究”(2010AA044001)的研究任务开展机器人系统设计与人机交互控制方面的关键技术研究。本文的主要工作和贡献如下: 1.根据血管介入手术的要求,在考虑安全性的基础上,设计了微创血管介入手术机器人系统的整体构架,规划了各部分需实现的功能。设计完成的送管机构考虑了它作为医用设备的消毒问题,并能够依靠力传感器实时检测导丝在送进过程中所受阻力的大小,以提高血管介入手术的安全性。 2.建立了五自由度定位机械臂连杆坐标系,基于所建立的坐标系研究了定位机械臂的运动学正解和反解,设计了定位机械臂3D运动学分析软件,为后续研究定位机械臂的碰撞规避奠定了基础。 3.研究了定位机械臂柔顺控制问题,并设计了相应的柔顺控制算法,根据各时刻定位机械臂末端的六维力传感器测得的广义力向量,计算出各采样时间间隔内的冲量值,利用欧拉积分表达式,求解出下一采样时刻定位机械臂各关节的期望角度。该算法使得定位机械臂能够按照医生的意愿实时调整定位机械臂末端送管机构的送丝方向。 4.提出了一种基于误差变换的控制方法。即使机械臂各关节电机的电枢绕组、电感常数等参数未知且系统存在外部扰动,该控制算法都能够提高机械臂的跟踪误差在预先给定的范围内。借助多刚体动力学仿真软件ADAMS和MATLAB进行联合仿真,验证了本文所设计的控制器,与普通神经网络控制器的控制结果对比表明,本文设计的控制器的控制效果更优。 5.为了使介入医生更好地与本文中设计的微创血管介入手术机器人进行交互,从而能够快速完成由手动送丝到通过操作装置控制机器人送丝这一送丝方式的转变,本文设计了微创血管介入手术模拟系统。 6.对微创血管介入手术机器人进行了实验研究。对项目组研发的微创血管介入手术机器人进行了定位机械臂和送管机构的定位精度实验研究;针对临床微创血管介入手术应用,完成了动物实验,对实验结果进行了分析研究。 7.对本文所取得的研究成果进行了总结,并展望了需要进一步开展的工作。
Other AbstractCardiac and cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) are the “No. 1 killer” jeopardizing human health around the world. Vascular intervention is currently an important treatment for CVDs. Compared with traditional open surgery, this procedure has many advantages such as small operation wound, less pain and it can substantially reduce patients' hospitalization time, etc. With the rapid development of robotics, it becomes possible to apply minimally invasive surgical robot for vascular interventions into medical clinic. This kind of surgical robot can accurately plan surgical procedures, reduce the X-ray bodily damage to medical professionals and surgeon's work intensity. The research and development of minimally invasive surgical robot for vascular interventions is of great significance in promoting the development of our medical robots and it can accelerate the development of the surrounding interdisciplines. This work is supported by the National Hi-Tech R&D Programs (863): “minimally invasive cardiovascular interventional surgical robot” (Grant: 2009AA044003) and “research on minimally invasive vascular interventional surgical robot” (Grant: 2010AA044001). This dissertation mainly focuses on some key issues, such as robot system design and interactive control, etc. Firstly, according to the requirements of vascular intervention procedures and considering security, the overall structure of minimally invasive vascular interventional surgical robot system is designed, and the required functions each part needs to implement are planned. The designed catheter manipulator can be sterilized. The force applied to the guide wire can be measured real-time due to the delicate design of catheter manipulator. This greatly helps guarantee patients' safety during vascular intervention. Secondly, by using Denavit-Hartenberg framework method, the coordinate frames of joints have been established. And based on these frames, the forward and backward kinematics of the 5-DOF robot arm is studied. A software which helps people analysis the kinematics of robot is developed in this paper. Thirdly, a robot arm compliant control algorithm is proposed. This algorithm accumulates the generalized force applied to the 6D force sensor during the time interval of sampling. Under some minor assumption, and using Euler's integrate method, the desired value of each joint is derived. This algorithm makes the catheter manipulator mounted on the end-effecter of robot arm adjust according to...
Other Identifier200818014628021
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
谢晓亮. 微创血管介入手术机器人设计与人机交互控制[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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