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嵌入式视觉系统关键技术研究与应用
其他题名Research on Key Techniques of Embedded Vision System and its Application
徐正东
学位类型工学博士
导师原魁
2011-05-27
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词嵌入式视觉系统 Fpga 并行硬件结构 Mr二维码 位姿测量 U型床定位 Embedded Vision System Parallelized Hardware Architecture Mr Code Pose Measurement U-shape Bed Localization
摘要嵌入式视觉系统体积小、功耗低、易安装易维护,其在工业机器视觉和智能机器人领域的应用日趋广泛,但是嵌入式视觉系统的性能与基于PC平台的视觉系统相比,还有一定差距。为提高嵌入式视觉系统的性能,可以从软件和硬件两个方面着手:在软件上可以通过改进图像处理算法来提高视觉系统的鲁棒性和计算效率;在硬件上,则可以改进硬件结构,为图像处理算法设计并行的计算结构。本文在国家863项目的资助下,对以FPGA+DSP为处理单元的嵌入式视觉系统的硬件结构和软件实现进行了探讨和研究,主要工作和创新之处包括: 第一,针对课题组设计的嵌入式图像处理卡硬件结构的特点提出了一种适合在FPGA上实现图像并行处理的结构,引入基于Wishbone总线的外部存储器访问接口,提高了FPGA内图像处理模块的可移植性。 第二,根据邻域操作算法的特点设计硬件结构,在FPGA中实现多种基于邻域操作的图像处理算法,包括灰度变换、中值滤波、高斯平滑、腐蚀膨胀和Sobel算子等。对Canny边缘检测算法进行改进,并在FPGA中采用并行结构实现算法,得到完美的边缘检测效果。 第三,利用FPGA和DSP相互配合,在嵌入式图像处理卡上实现了蝶形色标和MR二维码的识别方法,得到较好的识别效果,为嵌入式移动机器人的定位导航提供了视觉基础。 第四,针对喷涂机器人测量末端位姿的需要,设计了一种基于点激光和嵌入式图像处理卡的位姿测量装置。在嵌入式图像处理卡上实现了一种实时的U型床定位方法,使嵌入式智能轮椅能通过视觉伺服完成与U型床的自动对接。
其他摘要Embedded vision system is small, low power consumption, easy to install and easy to maintain, which is used increasingly wide in industrial machine vision and intelligent robot area, but it still has a certain performance gap compared with vision system based on PC platform. We can improve the performance of embedded vision system from both software and hardware aspects: on software aspect, image processing algorithms can be improved to increase the robustness and computational efficiency of the vision system; on hardware aspect, hardware structure can be improved, we can design parallelized hardware architecture for image processing algorithms. In this paper, supported by National 863 Projects, hardware structure and software realization are studied and researched on an embedded vision system based on FPGA and DSP. The novel work and contributions of this thesis includes: Firstly, a parallelized image processing structure on FPGA is proposed for the embedded image processing card designed by our research team. The portability of image processing modules is improved by introducing external memory access interface based on Wishbone bus into the structure. Secondly, according to the characteristics of neighborhood algorithms, a hardware structure is designed and a lot of neighborhood image processing algorithms are realized on FPGA, including gray scale transformation, median filtering, Gaussian smoothing, corrosion, expansion, Sobel operator and so on. Canny edge detection algorithm is improved and realized with a parallelized structure on FPGA, the result of edge detection is perfect. Thirdly, with FPGA and DSP cooperating with each other, the butterfly color tag and MR code recognition methods are realized on the embedded image processing card, which provide visual basis for the localization and navigation of embedded mobile robot. Fourthly, a pose measurement device based on dot lasers and embedded image processing card is designed for the spraying robot to measure its end position and pose. A real-time U-shape bed localization method is realized on the embedded image processing card to enable the embedded intelligent wheelchair docking into a U-shape bed automatically through visual servo.
馆藏号XWLW1667
其他标识符200818014628023
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/6353
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
徐正东. 嵌入式视觉系统关键技术研究与应用[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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