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微创血管介入手术机器人的定位与导航
其他题名Tracking and Navigation of a Minimally Invasive Surgical Robot for Intravascular Interventions
吉程
学位类型工学博士
导师侯增广
2011-11-30
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词介入手术机器人 柔顺控制 血管分割 自动送丝 Interventional Robot Compliant Control Vessel Segmentation Autonomous Guidewire Delivery
摘要介入治疗是治疗心血管疾病的新兴治疗手段。对比传统开放式手术,它具有创伤小、疼痛轻、康复快的特点。机器人辅助技术在介入手术中的应用不仅会减少医生所受辐射,还可以提高手术精度,增加手术安全性。本文通过微创血管介入手术机器人的研制,就机器人系统设计、医学图像血管分割、自动介入手术等关键问题进行了研究。 论文的主要工作和贡献包括: 首先,提出了微创血管介入手术机器人的分布式架构,利用CANopen协议完成机械臂和送管子系统的同轴控制。送管机构的机械设计考虑了消毒和安装导丝问题,并通过力传感器检测导丝上阻力,提高了手术安全性。 其次,研究了机械臂的柔顺控制器,设计了具有双环控制结构的机械臂柔顺控制器。控制器外环为阻抗控制器,通过阻抗控制将六维力传感器检测到的机械臂末端受力转换为机械臂各关节上的期望速度;基于机器人动力学的内环速度控制器可以抑制外部扰动和机器人动力学模型误差带来的误差。使用柔顺控制策略,机械臂可以检测并跟踪医生拖拽方向,增加了医生操作灵活性。 第三,提出了送管子系统的主从模式控制策略,对控制流程进行了优化,分析了各项误差在送管子系统中的传递情况,然后根据精度分析的结果,设计了以血管半径为变量的传动比例函数,提高了在细小血管的送丝精度。 第五,初步研究了微创血管介入手术机器人的自动手术问题,提出了基于图像引导的自动送丝方法。该方法利用术前CT图像和术中磁定位系统指导机器人控制导丝选择血管分岔并接近病灶位置,首先建立了带有磁传感器的导丝头模型,然后根据血管宽度将分支选择区分为三种情况并提出了相应算法,最后通过“回撤-重送”机制保证了在分支选择出错时能及时纠正,并且最终完成送丝目标。 最后,对本文所取得的研究成果进行了总结,并展望了需要进一步开展的工作。
其他摘要Interventional treatment is a novel therapy for cardiac and intravascular diseases. Compared with traditional open surgery, intravascular interventions have significant advantages such as small wound, less pain and short recovery time. The application of robotic assistance technology in interventional treatment brings substantial benefits, namely high precision, radiation exposure reduction and improved security. By taking the development of minimally invasive vascular interventional robot as research background, the study of this dissertation focuses on some key issues of interventional robot, such as robot system design, vessel segmentation, autonomous interventional surgery. The main contributions of this thesis are as follows: Firstly, the distributed structure of the robotic system is proposed, which employs the CANopen protocol to implement manipulator and delivery subsystem's synchronous motion control. The delivery device's mechanism is designed with considerations of clinical sterilization and guidewire installation. A force sensor, which is mounted on the delivery device to measure force applied to the guidewire, improves the surgical security. Secondly, a dual-loop manipulator compliant controller is designed. The outer loop is an impedance controller which translates the force measured from 6 axis force sensor into desired speed in joint coordinates; The inner speed tracking controller is designed with the ability to suppress the errors caused by external perturbation and dynamic model errors. Manipulator employing this compliant strategy is able to detect and follow the surgeons' desired direction, which improve surgeons' agility. Thirdly, we proposed the delivery subsystem's control strategy and optimized the control flow, and then analyzed various errors' transmission in delivery subsystem. According to the analytical results, a function based on vessel width is proposed to improve delivery precision in small vessels. Fourthly, we presented a template matching algorithm for vessel segmentation. This algorithm, which consists of template predicting, template matching and a branch detection algorithm, is able to detect small vessels and vessels in low contrast background, offering surgeons more precise visualization. Fifthly, the autonomous robotic intervention is studied and an image-based algorithm is proposed. This algorithm employs preoperative CT data and intraoperative electromagnetic tracking system to control robotic syst...
馆藏号XWLW1706
其他标识符200818014628010
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/6404
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
吉程. 微创血管介入手术机器人的定位与导航[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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