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微小型直升机姿态估计和鲁棒控制技术研究
其他题名Attitude Estimation and Robust Control Research for Miniature Helicopters
常冠清
学位类型工学博士
导师杨一平 ; 常红星
2012-05-29
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业计算机应用技术
关键词微小型直升机 姿态估计 Ekf Sr-ukf 自抗扰控制 Backstepping 自适应模糊系统 飞控系统平台 Miniature Helicopters Attitude Estimation Ekf Sr-ukf Adrc Backstepping Adaptive Fuzy System Flight Control Platform
摘要微小型直升机作为一个强非线性、强耦合以及极不稳定的欠驱动复杂动力学系统,其精确动力学模型难以获取,这也成为其实现自主飞行控制所面临的一大挑战。同时,高性能的姿态估计是实现并控制微小型直升机的重要前提。因此开发满足微小型直升机实际应用的高性能姿态估计算法亦尤为重要。本文将围绕微小型直升机姿态估计方法和鲁棒控制方法展开研究,主要工作和贡献如下: (1) 为满足运算快、精度高等实际需求,对机载相关传感器信号进行了姿态估计研究。针对实际应用中基于扩展卡尔曼滤波(EKF)和姿态四元数的姿态估计算法在收敛性和鲁棒性方面的不足,提出了一种基于平方根无迹卡尔曼滤波(SR-UKF)和欧拉角的机载姿态估计算法。该算法可充分利用SR-UKF应对非线性估计问题的优势及欧拉角相互之间无限制的优点,从而实现载体姿态的高性能估计。各种地面测试结果均显示了该算法良好的动静态性能及较少耗时,实际飞行测试也验证了该算法的有效性和实用性。 (2) 针对微小型直升机的严重非线性、强耦合及复杂模型和参数不确定性等特点,重点设计了其简易计算量小的自抗扰鲁棒飞行控制器。根据飞行控制实际要求,针对自抗扰控制中扩张状态器传统离散实现会导致系统振荡的问题,引入Tustin双线性离散化方法和预报补偿环节对系统进行校正,有效地改善了控制器性能。通过飞行控制仿真实验,验证了该控制器良好的跟踪性能和鲁棒性。 (3) 为获取飞控系统的可靠稳定性和优秀的飞行品质,设计了基于Backstepping和自适应模糊系统 的姿态和高度控制器,并针对Backstepping方法中间变量求导难题,引入一阶积分滤波器简化控制器设计。为统筹微小型直升机航迹和姿态控制且考虑到实际应用中存在的各种限制,提出了一种全新的综合鲁棒控制方案,利用旋转矩阵来实现航迹外回路对姿态内回路的控制,而非传统的欧拉角或姿态四元数;同时引入限制滤波器和补偿滤波器完成整个控制器的设计,并完整分析了系统的Lyapunov稳定性。此控制方案在保证系统稳定性的同时,还可增强系统实用性和鲁棒性。 (4) 为提高飞行控制律开发效率,基于Matlab/Simulink工具箱设计了微小型直升机飞行控制仿真系统,并取得了良好的仿真和视觉效果。而后通过集成机载相关设备设计和搭建了微小型直升机飞控系统平台,并通过遥控试飞检验了此平台的相关性能,为进一步的自主飞行控制试飞奠定了良好基础。
其他摘要The accurate dynamic model of miniature helicopter is difficult to obtain due to its strong nonlinearity, heavy coupling, strong static instability and underactuated characteristics, which becomes a major challenge for its autonomous flight controller design. Meanwhile, high efficient and accurate attitude estimation is an important prerequisite for the realization and control of miniature helicopter. Therefore, it is particularly important to develop high-performance attitude estimation algorithm for the practical application of miniature helicopter. This dissertation mainly focuses on attitude estimation and robust control study for miniature helicopter. The main context and contributions of this dissertation are as follows: (1) In order to meet practical requirements of fast computing, high-precision and etc, attitude estimation study for some airborne related sensor signals is carried out. For the lack of convergence and robustness in the practical application of the attitude estimation algorithm, which is based on EKF and attitude quaternion, an new attitude estimation algorithm based on SR-UKF and euler angles is proposed. The algorithm can make full use of the SR-UKF's effectiveness in nonlinear estimation and euler angles' mutual independence, and thus can obtain more high-performance attitude estimation. A variety of ground test results not only show the good static and dynamic characteristics of the new algorithm, but also display its less time-consuming in airborne computer. And the actual flight tests also verify the effectiveness and practicality of the algorithm. (2) Facing the miniature helicopter's severe nonlinearity, heavy coupling and complex model and parameter uncertainties, an robust active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC), which is simple and has small amount of calculation, is designed. In accordance with the flight control actual requirements and to solve the problem that the traditional discrete realization of the extended state observer (ESO) of ADRC will result in system oscillation, the Tustin bilinear discretization method and a predictive compensation method are introduced to correct the system, which effectively improves the performance of the ADRC controller. And some flight control simulation results also validate the good tracing performance and strong robustness of the modified ADRC controller. (3)In order to achieve reliable stability and excellent flying qualities of the flight control system, a robust a...
馆藏号XWLW1756
其他标识符200918014629078
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/6446
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
常冠清. 微小型直升机姿态估计和鲁棒控制技术研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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