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仿生机器海豚的建模、控制及其在水质监测中的应用研究
其他题名Modeling and Control for Biomimetic Robotic Dolphin and Its Application in Water Quality Monitoring
沈飞
学位类型工学博士
导师徐德
2012-05-30
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词仿生机器海豚 动力学建模 运动控制 模糊控制 水质监测 Biomimetic Robotic Dolphin Dynamic Modeling Motion Control Fuzzy Control Water Quality Monitoring
摘要在水下仿生领域,海豚优于鱼类的游动性能和减阻机制使得仿生机器海豚更适于成为研究对象,应用前景广阔。本文针对仿生机器海豚的建模、控制及其在水质监测中的应用开展研究,论文的主要内容如下: 首先,介绍了海豚的生理学特点和推进机理,对仿生机器海豚原型、仿生机器海豚及机器鱼的动力学建模与控制、主要研究内容及研究方向进行了综述,并对研究背景和论文结构做了介绍。 其次,基于仿生机理和系统控制要求,研制了一套三维运动的仿生机器海豚系统,分析并设计了仿生机器海豚的机构包括基于重心调节的浮潜机构,并对仿生机器海豚的控制系统、远程控制与测试平台进行了设计。 第三,开展了仿生机器海豚的动力学建模研究,通过对仿生机器海豚运动学和受力情况的分析,得到广义惯性力和广义主动力,进而建立仿生机器海豚的动力学模型。其中,水动力的计算是根据尾鳍攻角所处的不同范围分别利用升力线理论或阻力模型来进行的。在此基础上,结合豚体波拟合推进,提出一种通过调节尾鳍关节角规律的幅度和相位来优化平均推进速度和推进效率的方法。 第四,分析了仿生机器海豚的浮潜运动和偏航运动,结合定深控制和定向控制的特点分别提出了基于模糊PID控制的机器海豚定深控制方法以及基于自调节模糊控制的机器海豚定向控制方法。所提定深控制方法引入非线性积分环节用于应对尾部浮力变化等因素带来的稳态误差问题;定向控制方法通过自调节输入输出比例因子来提高控制稳态精度。 第五,针对水质在线、安全、全方位监测这一需求,给出了一种基于机器海豚的水质监测系统框架。设计了集成水质传感器的机器海豚,包括直流电机驱动的蜗轮蜗杆机构和舵机驱动的三连杆机构、一对三自由度胸鳍机构以及两个转弯关节,外覆硅胶皮用于整体密封和减阻。在原位式节点网的配合下,实现了机器海豚移动全面检测与原位式长期定点检测的统一。 最后,对本文工作进行了总结,并指出了需要进一步开展的研究工作。
其他摘要The dolphin is more excellent than the fish at the aspects of swimming performance and drag reduction mechanism, which makes biomimetic robotic dolphin more suitable be a research object in underwater biomimetic robotics community. It has a wide variety of potential applications. In this thesis, the research on modeling and control for biomimetic robotic dolphin and its application in water quality monitoring is carried out and the main contents are as follows: Firstly, the physiological characteristics and propulsive mechanism of the dolphin are introduced. Meanwhile, the research development of biomimetic robotic dolphin's prototypes, dynamic modeling and control for biomimetic robotic dolphin and robotic fish, and the main research contents and directions of biomimetic robotic dolphin are presented. The background and structure of this thesis are also introduced. Secondly, a biomimetic robotic dolphin with 3D movement ability is developed based on the requirements of biomimetic mechanism and system control. The biomimetic robotic dolphin's mechanical mechanism including the up-down motion mechanism based on barycenter adjustment is analyzed and designed. Meanwhile, the control system for biomimetic robotic dolphin as well as the remote control and test platform are designed. Thirdly, the research on robotic dolphin's dynamic modeling is carried out. After analyzing the kinematics and forces of the robotic dolphin, the generalized inertia forces and the generalized active forces are obtained and thus the robotic dolphin's dynamic model is built. In order to calculate the hydrodynamic force, the fluke is modeled as a finite span hydrofoil or flat plate according to different ranges of its attack angle based on lifting-line theory or resistance model, respectively. Furthermore, combing the propulsion by fitting dolphin’s wave, the optimization approach of average propulsive speed and propulsive efficiency by adjusting the amplitude and phase of fluke's joint angle's profile are proposed. Fourthly, the yaw motion and up-down motion are analyzed firstly. Aiming at the characteristics of the depth control and orientation control for biomimetic robotic dolphin, a depth control method based on the fuzzy PID control and an orientation control method based on self-tuning fuzzy are proposed respectively. The proposed depth control method introduces the nonlinear integral unit to eliminate steady-state error caused by variation of tail's buoyancy. By...
馆藏号XWLW1720
其他标识符200918014628010
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/6452
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
沈飞. 仿生机器海豚的建模、控制及其在水质监测中的应用研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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