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面向通用飞行模拟的大规模三维场景可视化技术研究
Alternative TitleStudy of Visualization Techniques of Large-Scale 3D Scenes for General Flight Simulation
刘思江
Subtype工学博士
Thesis Advisor杨一平 ; 蒋永实
2013-05-28
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院自动化研究所
Degree Discipline计算机应用技术
Keyword大规模三维场景 地形生成绘制 分页调度 海面建模交互 视景仿真 飞行模拟 Large-scale 3d Scene Terrain Generation And Rendering Page Scheduling Ocean Surface Modeling And Interaction Visual Simulation Flight Simulation
Abstract国家有关低空空域改革政策的发布使我国通用航空事业获得了发展与繁荣的大好机会。鉴于飞行模拟器在军用民用航空中的巨大作用以及所具备的高技术含量和专业功能,它将会是通用航空事业中极具潜力的发展方向。在此背景下,水陆两栖飞机飞行模拟器原型系统的研制课题被提了出来。由于视景生成对飞行模拟的感官体验和模拟机的等级评定都具有较大影响,本文着重对视景仿真子系统的架构设计、实现以及视景生成的可视化关键技术进行了研究。视景生成一方面需要满足沉浸、交互、构想的虚拟现实基本属性,一方面又具有实时性强、场景范围大、复杂度高、特定交互需求、易用廉价等通用飞行模拟特性,对采用的可视化技术提出了更高的要求与挑战。因此,本文目的就是通过研究相关可视化技术,构建实用有效的视景生成软件环境,设计并最终实现通用飞行模拟视景仿真子系统。 水陆两栖飞机模拟中,地形和海洋是场景可视化的两大要素。飞行模拟的视觉和运动特点增大了地形可视化的复杂度和数据量,这就需要在诸多限制因素下通过数据预处理生成符合场景特点且有利于高效显示的地形数据库,并采用高效的地形数据调度解决大规模数据与有限内存之间的矛盾;另外,飞行模拟对海洋面有可视化和交互的双重需求,这又需要高效真实的海面建模与交互方法。为了解决以上三个关键问题,本文从地形数据的预处理生成和绘制、大规模地形数据的实时调度、海洋表面的建模与交互三方面展开研究。 首先,作为场景要素之一的地形,需采用合理的存储组织方式预生成地形数据库,以便更好地绘制。为此,首次提出了保持边界的聚类层次结构地形思想,确立了思想中“保持点”和“控制点”两个定义、及选用聚类层次结构地形表示的内涵。将“保持点”和“控制点”引入地形网格简化过程,改进了Melax的快速网格简化算法,提出了保持边界的地形网格简化算法;所得简化网格应用于聚类层次结构的地形表示,形成了保持边界的聚类层次结构地形格式。实验结果表明,保持边界的地形网格简化算法具有保持边界特性和更好的简化效果;保持边界的聚类层次结构地形格式则对飞行模拟地形显示、LoD算法及GPU都非常友好。 第二,为有效利用已有地形格式完成大规模地形场景的实时显示,首次将分支限界思想引入到分页调度中,提出了基于分支限界的地形分页查询算法,完备地解决了查询所涉及的分页识别与操作问题;改进基于视点视线投机预取的外插算法,结合地形分页查询算法,完成了对未来数据集的预取;以基于分支限界的地形分页查询算法为主、改进的外插算法为辅,形成了完整的分页调度机制。实验结果表明,该机制很好地保证了飞行模拟地形数据调度的高效性和可靠性。 第三,为兼顾飞行模拟对另一场景要素海洋的动态可视化与交互双重需求,首次将投影网格与波粒子两种方法相结合,提出了结合波粒子的自适应海洋表面建模与交互方法。一方面改进了投影网格方法的投影规则,避免了原方法无法互动的缺陷;另一方面改变了投影网格的高度替换方式,避免了原方法模拟海浪时无方向感的缺陷;使用波粒子模拟飞机与海面接触产生的尾迹,...
Other AbstractGovernment approval of plans to deepen the reform of low-altitude airspace management provides an opportunity for the general aviation. Since flight simulator has played an important role in military and civil aviation and contains advanced technology and professional function, it will be a potential development direction in general aviation. Based on this background, the research subject of the prototype system of amphibious aircraft flight simulation is established. As visualization has great influence on both sense experience and level assessment of simulators, this dissertation mainly focuses on the sub-system of visual simulation in the prototype system, including architecture design and implementation, and key visualization techniques for visual scene. Visualization conforms to three properties of virtual reality and features in general aviation simulation such as high real-time demand, large scene scope, high complexity, special interaction and high performance-cost radio, all arousing greater challenges. The goal of this dissertation is to offer an effective visualization software environment by studying relevant visualization techniques and finally realize the sub-system of visual simulation. In the amphibious aircraft flight simulation, terrain and ocean are two elements of visual scenes. The characteristics of vision and motion of amphibious aircrafts demand higher complexity and more data for terrain scene, so require generating terrain data base proper for flight simulation by preprocessing, and scheduling terrain data effectively to solve the contradiction between huge data and limited memory. Moreover, amphibious aircrafts need not only visualization of ocean surface but also interaction with it, which require ocean surface modeling and interaction method. To solve above three issues, the dissertation studies three aspects including preprocessing and rendering of terrain, real-time scheduling of large-scale terrain data, modeling and interaction simulation of ocean surface. Firstly, terrain data organization should be preprocessed properly for better using in flight scenes. So the idea of holding-boundary terrain with clustering hierarchy structure is proposed for the first time, which contains two definitions of holding vertex and controlling vertex, and one representation of terrain with clustering hierarchy structure. By bringing holding vertex and controlling vertex into mesh simplification, Malex’s fast polygon reduction algorith...
shelfnumXWLW1886
Other Identifier201018014629088
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/6524
Collection毕业生_博士学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘思江. 面向通用飞行模拟的大规模三维场景可视化技术研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院大学,2013.
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