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高超声速飞行器大包线跟踪控制关键问题研究
其他题名Research on Key Problems of Large-envelope Tracking Control for Hypersonic Vehicles
蒲志强
学位类型工学博士
导师易建强
2014-05-27
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词高超声速飞行器 大包线 轨迹线性化 自抗扰 主动抑制 Hypersonic Vehicle Large Envelope Trajectory Linearization Control Active Disturbance Rejection Control Active Suppression
摘要自20世纪50年代超燃冲压发动机的概念被提出以来,高超声速飞行器体现出了越来越重要的军事和民用价值,其发展水平已成为世界各国科技实力与综合国力的集中体现。控制技术作为高超声速飞行器诸多核心技术之一,是保证飞行器实现既定任务的关键。然而,高超声速飞行器具有飞行包线大、特性变化快、模态耦合严重等特点,给控制系统的设计提出了严峻的挑战。本文综合考虑刚性体、弹性体两类高超声速飞行器对象,在全面分析模型特性的基础上,深入研究了涵盖巡航、再入等不同飞行阶段的大包线飞行跟踪控制中的若干关键问题,具体包括: (1)建立了刚性体、弹性体两种高超声速飞行器的运动方程,并从控制的角度给出了飞行特性的全面分析方法。分析内容包括强非线性、多模态时标分离、机体-发动机及刚体-弹性模态耦合、飞行参数快时变、强不确定性等飞行特性。特别地,针对刚体-弹性交叉耦合,划分了不同刚体模态与弹性模态间的耦合强弱程度;针对快时变特性,指出了动压变化对飞行特性带来的巨大影响。 (2)针对刚体高超声速飞行器巡航控制问题,提出了基于反馈线性化和自抗扰的鲁棒巡航控制方案。该方案包含一套先进的反馈线性化控制系统,即在反馈线性化控制的主框架上,针对大机动指令跟踪、干扰抑制等任务要求进行鲁棒增强设计,包括设计函数发生器为大机动指令安排合理的过渡过程,设计扩张状态观测器对不确定性和干扰进行估计和补偿,设计粒子群优化算法对反馈系数向量进行优化。 (3)针对刚体高超声速飞行器再入控制问题,提出了基于轨迹线性化和自抗扰的再入姿态控制方案。该方案基于PD特征谱理论设计了自适应时变带宽算法,实现动压快时变条件下的高性能闭环跟踪,同时设计了非线性扩张状态观测器对干扰进行估计补偿。特别地,该方案探索了一种基于广义Liénard系统的非线性扩张状态观测器分析思路,并证明了在一类绝对可积干扰下的观测误差收敛定理。 (4)针对弹性体高超声速飞行器不确定性及刚体-弹性模态强交叉耦合,提出了不确定性及弹性耦合同时主动抑制方案。该方案系统总结了大包线飞行中存在的各种不确定性及干扰,建立了面向控制的统一不确定性模型;设计了一体化的不确定性干扰观测器和弹性耦合陷波滤波器;基于模型分析的结论,指出了主要将陷波滤波器用于航迹倾角和高度子系统的处理手段,以实现干扰补偿与弹性抑制的平衡。 以上各控制方案均通过多组仿真实验验证了其控制的有效性。 总的来说,本文从大包线飞行跟踪的角度出发,深入研究了巡航、再入飞行中的若干关键控制问题,为我国未来高超声速飞行器的发展做出了积极的理论探讨。
其他摘要Since the concept of scramjet was firstly proposed in the 1950s, hypersonic vehicle (HSV) has exhibited many important military and civilian applications. Its development directly reflects the technology power and comprehensive strength of a country. As the centerpiece of HSV core technologies, control system design is the key technology for HSV to accomplish assigned tasks. However, it also poses huge challenges to designers due to complicated vehicle features, such as large flight envelope, fast time-varying vehicle behaviors, and significant modal couplings. This dissertation considers both rigid and flexible hypersonic vehicles. Based on comprehensive analysis of vehicle features, several key problems of HSV tracking control in large envelopes, including cruise and entry flights, are deeply investigated. The main contributions are addressed as follows. (1). Motion equations of a rigid generic hypersonic vehicle (RGHV) and a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV) are separately derived. Model features are comprehensively analyzed from a control perspective, indicating the properties of nonlinearity, time-scale separation, strong couplings from the engine system and the flexible modes, fast time-varying parameters, and multiple uncertainties. Particularly, in the flexibility coupling analysis, rigid modes are categorized by different coupling levels; in the fast time-varying feature analysis, the influences of varying dynamic pressure to the vehicle characteristics are deeply investigated. (2). A robust cruise control scheme based on feedback linearization (FL) and active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is proposed for the RGHV. This scheme firstly designs a FL control frame. Then in order to solve intractable flight problems such as large maneuver command tracking and multiple uncertainties rejection, several robust control techniques are integrated. Function generators are designed to arrange desired transient processes for large maneuver commands. Extended state observers (ESOs) are designed to estimate and compensate diverse uncertainties. In addition, a particle swarm optimization algorithm is designed to optimize feedback control gains. (3). A robust entry attitude control scheme based on trajectory linearization control (TLC) and ADRC is proposed for the RGHV. Based on PD-eigenvalue theory, an adaptive time-varying bandwidth algorithm is designed to suppress the influences of fast time-varying dynamic pressure to closed...
馆藏号XWLW1998
其他标识符201118014628015
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/6623
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
蒲志强. 高超声速飞行器大包线跟踪控制关键问题研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院大学,2014.
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