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智能轮椅床关键技术研究
其他题名Research on Key Technology of Intelligent Wheelchair Bed
任亚楠
学位类型工学博士
导师原魁
2014-05-28
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词智能轮椅床 体位变换 自动对接 自主导航 Intelligent Wheelchair Bed Posture Adjustment Autonomous Docking Autonomous Navigation
摘要随着社会老龄化问题的日益严峻,各类残疾人和长期卧床病人大量存在并持续增长,使医疗和护理工作面临前所未有的压力,助老助残问题正日益成为一个重大的社会问题。基于床椅一体化设计的智能轮椅床系统,能够为老年人和残疾人提供更强的独立生活能力,降低护理人员的工作强度,对于提高老年人和残疾人的生活质量,确保社会持续稳定发展具有重要的现实意义。在国家863项目“老人/残障者智能型室内助动系统研制开发”的支持下,本文针对具有体位变换、自动对接和自主导航功能的智能轮椅床系统进行了深入研究,论文的主要工作和创新之处如下: 第一,提出了一种基于人工路标的智能轮椅床自动对接方法:给出基于色带识别的智能轮椅床自主定位算法,针对色带定位受光线影响较大的问题,设计了一种主动式红外人工路标,并给出基于红外路标的自主定位算法;给出基于U形辅助床体的自动对接算法,针对对接方法占用空间较大的问题,采用半开放式床体,设计实现了一种小空间自动对接算法。通过实验验证了所提自动对接方法的有效性。 第二,提出了一种基于惯性传感器的智能轮椅床自主导航方法:基于时间序列模型建立陀螺仪的随机漂移模型,根据模型采用卡尔曼滤波对陀螺仪输出进行滤波;提出了一种基于层次聚类方法的陀螺仪零位参考值采集算法,提高了零位参考值采集精度;采用卡尔曼方法融合里程计和陀螺仪信息,实现智能轮椅床的自主导航,并通过实验给出导航精度。 第三,提出了一种基于红外二维码定位的智能轮椅床导航轨迹修正方法:针对基于可见光的视觉定位方法受环境光线影响较大的问题,设计了一种主动红外二维码路标,给出红外二维码路标的识别和定位算法;针对惯性系统累积误差影响导航精度的问题,基于EKF融合算法,融合惯性系统和视觉信息,对智能轮椅床导航轨迹进行修正。通过实验验证了所提方法的有效性。 最后对论文中的工作进行了总结,并讨论了可在其基础上进行的拓展工作。
其他摘要With the problem of aging society becoming more and more serious, disability and long-term bedridden patients exist in large quantities and sustainable grows. Medical and nursing work faces a hitherto unknown pressure and has become a major social problem. The intelligent wheelchair bed provides greater capacity of independent living for the elderly and disabled, reduces the intensity of the work of nurses and has important practical significance to improve the quality of the elderly’s life and ensure sustained and stable development of society. Supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Programme of China “Research on the Intelligent Indoor Auxiliary System for the Elder/Handicapped”, this thesis has studied on the Intelligent wheelchair bed with the function of posture alteration,autonomous navigation and autonomous docking. The novel work and contributions of this thesis can be summarized as follows: Firstly, a docking control method of intelligent wheelchair bed based on the artificial landmark is proposed. Based on the identify of ribbon set on the bed a self-localization algorithm is proposed. For the problem of ribbon identify influenced by the light, a kind of Infrared landmark is designed and the self-localization algorithm based Infrared landmark is given; Using the calculated pose of wheelchair to the landmark to be feedback, docking control algorithms based on U-shaped bed and Semi-open bed are given to control the wheelchair to dock into the bed and form a complete living bed. Experiments have validated the feasibility and effectiveness. Secondly, a method of autonomous navigation of intelligent wheelchair bed based on inertial sensors is proposed. Establish the random drift model of inertial sensors and reduce the random drift using Kalman filtering algorithm. Calculate the zero reference of gyroscope using the clustering theory and reduce the integration error. Using the Kalman filter the encoder and gyroscope are merged and achieved the autonomous navigation of intelligent wheelchair bed. Experiments have validated the feasibility and navigation error. Thirdly, a method of navigation path correction of intelligent wheelchair bed based Infrared MR code is proposed. For the cumulative error exists in the inertial navigation and the unstable light environment, a active infrared MR code is designed and the identify and localization algorithm are given; Using the EKF fusion algorithm the inertial systems and visu...
馆藏号XWLW1999
其他标识符201118014628016
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/6626
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
任亚楠. 智能轮椅床关键技术研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院大学,2014.
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