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波动鳍推进水下航行器设计与控制方法研究
其他题名Research on the Design and Control of a Biomimetic Underwater Vehicle Propelled by Undulatory Fins
魏清平
学位类型工学博士
导师谭民
2015-05-27
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词仿生水下机器人 波动推进 自抗扰控制 视线导航 路径跟踪控制 Biomimetic Underwater Vehicle Undulatory Propulsion Active Disturbance Rejection Control Line-of-sight Guidance Path-following Control
摘要仿生波动鳍推进水下航行器在低速场合中具有机动性高、稳定性好、抗干扰能力强、噪声低、对环境扰动小等优点,在海洋生物观察、海底管线检修、水下资源勘探、水下捞救等民用领域以及海上军事侦察、海上军事打击等军事领域均具有广阔的应用前景。本文针对波动鳍推进水下航行器的系统设计、三维运动控制、深度控制、航向控制以及路径跟踪控制等方面展开研究工作,论文的主要内容如下: 首先,基于模块化设计思想,设计了具有三维运动能力且波动鳍各鳍条独立可控的波动鳍推进水下航行器机构。设计了基于FPGA+ PC104的控制系统和波动鳍驱动系统,实现了波动鳍运动控制,并可任意调节运动参数。通过软硬件集成研制完成了波动鳍推进水下航行器实验样机。 其次,建立了仿生波动鳍的运动学模型,分析了制约波动鳍运动的物理约束条件,并对波动鳍产生的推进力进行了定性分析。通过协调控制左、右两侧波动鳍的运动,提出了波动鳍推进水下航行器的多模态三维运动控制方法,实现了前进、后退、侧移、浮潜等稳态运动以及转向、旋转等瞬态运动。 再次,针对波动鳍推进水下航行器的深度和航向控制问题,提出了基于自抗扰控制技术和模糊推理的深度控制方法和航向控制方法,构建了基于模糊推理的浮潜推力―行波参数映射模型和偏航力矩―行波参数映射模型,解决了自抗扰控制器给出的控制量与水下航行器控制参数不一致问题,实现了对波动鳍推进水下航行器的深度及航向控制。 最后,针对波动鳍推进水下航行器的路径跟踪控制问题,提出了基于视线导航的三维路径跟踪控制方法,将三维路径跟踪控制问题转换为航速、深度和航向等三个控制问题。基于自抗扰控制技术分别设计了航速控制器、深度控制器和航向控制器,并构建了基于模糊推理的推进力和偏航力矩―行波参数映射模型,解决了水下航行器的波动鳍动力学模型未知且产生的推进力具有强耦合性条件下的控制问题,实现了对水面二维路径以及水下三维路径的跟踪控制。
其他摘要Biomimetic underwater vehicles propelled by undulatory fins have many advantages such as high maneuverability, good stability, strong anti-disturbance capability, low noise and producing small disturbance to the surrounding environment when they swim at low speed. Hence the biomimetic underwater vehicles are expected to be widely used in the field of civil and military applications. This thesis focuses on the system design, 3-dimentional motion control, depth control, course control and path-following control of a biomimetic underwater vehicle propelled by undulatory fins. The main contents of this thesis are as follows. Firstly, a biomimetic underwater vehicle is designed based on modular design concept. The vehicle can swim in 3-dimentional space and its fin rays are driven by independent servo motors. Then a FPGA- and PC104-based control system and a driver system for undulatory fins are designed to achieve the motion control of undulatory fins. Then a prototype of the biomimetic underwater vehicle is fabricated by integrating the above hardware and software. Secondly, the kinematic model of undulatory fins is developed. And the constraints restricting the motion of undulatory fins are studied and the thrust produced by undulatory fins is qualitatively analyzed. Then a 3-dimentional motion control method for the biomimetic underwater vehicle is proposed by coordinated control of both left and right fins. As a result, multiple motion patterns such as marching, receding, swaying, submerging, surfacing, turning and rotation are achieved. Thirdly, aiming at the depth control and course control of the biomimetic underwater vehicle, a depth controller and a course controller are proposed independently based on the active disturbance rejection control technology. Considering that the control signals given by depth controller and course controller are different with the control input of the biomimetic underwater vehicle, a parameter mapping model that maps the heave force to wave parameters of undulatory fins and a parameter mapping model that maps the yaw torque to wave parameters of undulatory fins are developed based on fuzzy inference methods. Finally, in order to solve the path-following control problem for the biomimetic underwater vehicle, a 3-D path following control scheme is proposed based on the Line-of-Sight guidance law. As a result, the 3-D path-following control problem is transformed to surge speed control, depth control and course cont...
其他标识符201218014628020
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/6697
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
魏清平. 波动鳍推进水下航行器设计与控制方法研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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