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基于小型无人直升机的三维地形检测研究
其他题名Research on 3D Terrain Detection Based upon Small Unmanned Helicopters
刘静
学位类型工学硕士
导师谭民
2006-11-16
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词三维地形检测 小型无人直升机 Gps 嵌入式系统 激光测距仪 3d Terrain Detection Small Unmanned Helicopter Gps Equipment Embedded System With Arm 9 Distance Laser Sensor
摘要三维地形检测研究是针对复杂、大范围且非结构化的地形而开展的相关技术的研究,旨在安全、高效和精确地检测出地形的三维信息并且描绘出地形的三维模型。三维地形检测在行星探测、城市建模和煤矿绘图等重要领域具有潜在的应用价值。本文从三维地形检测的现有研究方法入手,首先总结了这些方法的优势和局限性,阐述利用小型无人直升机搭载测量设备和传感器实现三维地形检测研究的可行性和有效性;然后基于硬件选择原则和飞行测量标准,选择了合适的仪器和设备搭载在小型无人直升机上,建立了飞行实验系统,研究了地形表面三维信息检测算法;最后,将算法应用在实验平台上并建立了待测地形表面的三维模型。 本文首先阐述了非结构化地形的特点,介绍了三维地形检测的概念和应用背景,综述了三维地形检测的现有研究方法,提出以小型无人直升机为载体、利用机载设备获取地表三维信息的方法,并介绍了本文的选题背景和主要内容。 其次,介绍了三维地形检测研究的载体——小型无人直升机和关键技术——全球定位系统。对国内外无人机的发展状况、无人模型直升机的研究概况和主要内容,以及全球定位系统的发展历程、系统组成、定位原理和在三维地形检测研究中的应用分别进行了综述。 第三,提出了硬件设计的标准,并选择了三维地形检测研究所需的硬件,包括小型无人直升机、GPS设备、激光测距传感器和基于ARM 9的嵌入式控制器,设计了飞行检测平台硬件系统,实现了硬件的安装和整合。 第四,设计了三维地形检测系统软件结构,开发了基于嵌入式系统的通讯程序,实现了激光测距仪的自动测量和数据存储,结合GPS读取软件和后处理软件,实现了三维地表的数据采集和数据处理。 第五,根据提出的地形检测原理,设计实验验证了三维地形检测系统的可行性、可用性和有效性,并给出了实验结果和系统的全局精度。 最后,对本论文进行的工作和取得的成果加以总结,并指出了需要进一步研究的工作。
其他摘要The research on three-dimensional (3D) terrain detection is studied for essential technologies for detecting 3D information and building 3D representation of unstructured terrain safely, efficiently and accurately in a large area, which will support valuable applications of various fields, such as planetary exploration, urban model construction, underground mine mapping, etc. In this paper, started with current approaches to 3D terrain detection, their advantages and limitations are presented. The combination of a small unmanned helicopter with onboard sensors and equipment is considered as a suitable and feasible platform for 3D terrain detection. Based on standards for hardware selection, onboard hardware is chosen to provide 3D information of detected terrain and the hardware system is demonstrated. Several experiments are carried out in the real world by integrating algorithms into the platform and 3D terrain detection task is finally achieved. Firstly, the features of unstructured terrain are described. The conception, significance and applications of 3D terrain detection are introduced. Current approaches to terrain detection are reviewed. Our approach to terrain detection by integrating a small unmanned helicopter with Global Positioning System (GPS) and others sensors and equipment is presented. The background and the structure of this thesis are also addressed. Secondly, the aerial carrier-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and the key technology-GPS of 3D terrain detection are introduced. UAVs’ definition, classification and world-wide development are narrated. Especially, the assortment, the mechanism, flying modes and applications of model helicopters are expounded. The overwhelming advantages of applying a small unmanned helicopter into terrain detection are presented. The research development and main research directions in the field of model helicopters domestic and overseas are reviewed. What’s more, as a navigation system, GPS is introduced in detail, including its evolution, system architecture, localization principle and specific application in the research of 3D terrain detection. Thirdly, factors taken into account when selecting and designing hardware system are presented. Based on selection standards, the small unmanned helicopter, GPS equipment, distance laser sensor and embedded system with ARM 9 are chosen. The hardware system for 3D terrain detection is established and the hardware integration is described. Fourthly, the software framework for 3D terrain detection is designed. The onboard software based upon the embedded system is developed, aiming at automatic survey and data storage of the distance laser sensor. Combined with the software for communication between GPS receivers and palm computers and the post-processing software, data sampling and data processing are realized.
馆藏号XWLW1050
其他标识符200328014604101
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/7395
专题毕业生_硕士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘静. 基于小型无人直升机的三维地形检测研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2006.
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