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具有自动水平调节功能的吊车吊具的设计
其他题名Design of Self-Leveling Device for Crane Systems
张小成
学位类型工学硕士
导师易建强
2008-05-26
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词自动水平调节 吊具 Tag法 On-line Tag法 Self-leveling Lifting Device Tag Method On-line Method
摘要吊车系统是工业制造、生产工程中得到广泛应用的机械运输系统,其作用主要在目标位置控制以及抗摆控制上。在某些特殊场合下,如吊挂一些贵重、易损伤的偏心载荷,则必须首先将载荷对接面调节成高度水平的状态,然后再进行抗摆控制和目标位置控制,否则载荷对接面可能会因碰撞造成损伤。传统吊车研究中,国内外并没有太多地关注水平调节控制的问题,本文则着重研究吊车系统的高精度的水平调节作用。本文的研究内容主要分以下几个部分: 首先,为了设计出吊车系统的吊具结构,本文根据工程应用中广为应用的水平调节技术——重心补偿配平技术,设计出基于不同调节原理的多达四种水平调节吊具结构方案,并详细阐述了每种吊具结构的优缺点。同时,以伺服电机的效率以及配重块的投影面积大小作为衡量吊具性能的主要指标,从中选择出了最合适的吊具结构。 其次,为了得出该吊具结构的力学模型,我们根据工程应用需求并从建模的方便性出发,首先作出一些合理的假设,并在这些假设的基础上,通过建立基于吊具上表面吊钩的世界坐标系(WCS)和基于载荷上表面的设备坐标系(DCS),借助坐标空间变换技术,得出了载荷对接面的水平倾角与两个配重块的转角之间的函数关系式,并以此作为吊具结构的力学模型。 然后,为了证明该吊具结构的应用可行性,本文基于该力学模型,借助于SolidWorks以及V-Realm Builder和Matlab中的Virtual Reality Toolbox等工具,实现了该吊具的基于虚拟现实的仿真,验证了该吊具结构的可行性和有效性。 最后,为了在工程应用中实现自动水平调节的功能,需要预先解出偏心载荷的特征参数;同时,考虑到建模时的种种假设以及实际工程环境中的各种噪声干扰,本文结合TAG (Try And Get)法以及平均值策略,提出了On-Line TAG方法来降低噪声的影响,并实现了水平调节的具体步骤,取得了较好的仿真结果,验证了该方法的有效性。
其他摘要Crane system is one of the popular mechanic transportation systems used in industrial manufacturing. It functions mainly on destination control and anti-sway control. In some special occasions, for example, lifting some valuable, fragile and eccentric payloads, we should firstly adjust the payload attaching plane (PAP) to be highly level, then process anti-sway control and destination control, otherwise, the PAP would be collided and hurt. In traditional crane research, there are no enough focuses on highly precise leveling adjustment. So this paper mainly focuses on the highly precise leveling adjustment of crane systems as follows: Firstly, in order to design a leveling device for crane systems with adequate performances, we design as many as four schemes based on different leveling principles, according to the most popular leveling technique in industrial applications: Gravity Compensation technique. And particularize every device’s advantages and disadvantages in detail. Meanwhile, we select out the best leveling device from the four schemes, based on the efficiency of servo-motors and the projection area of compensation weights. Secondly, in order to get the mechanical model of this leveling device, we firstly make some reasonable assumptions according to project application requirements, and then establish a World Coordinate System(WCS) at the hook on the upper surface of the leveling device as well as a Device Coordinate System(DCS) on the upper surface of the payload. In virtue of Coordinate Space Transformation techniques, the function between PAP oblique angles and rotation angles of the two compensation weights is concluded as the mechanical model of this leveling device. Thirdly, in order to verify the feasibility of the crane device, basing on the mechanical model, we realize the simulation of the leveling adjustment process of crane system, with the help of the 3D modeling function of SolidWorks, and V-Realm Builder as well as the virtual reality toolbox in Matlab. The simulation verifies the feasibility and efficiency of this leveling device. Finally, in order to realize the self-leveling function in real occasions, we adopt the TAG (Try And Get) method to solve the specific parameters of the eccentric payload in advance. However, considering the assumptions during modeling and various kinds of noises in real project environments, we apply Mean Value Method to eliminate the influences of noises. Then combining TAG method and this strategy, this paper proposes the On-Line TAG method to realize the steps for leveling adjustment. The satisfying simulation results show the efficiency of this method.
馆藏号XWLW1186
其他标识符200528014628017
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/7432
专题毕业生_硕士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张小成. 具有自动水平调节功能的吊车吊具的设计[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2008.
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