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基于自校正的无人机控制方法研究
Alternative TitleFlight Control Research based on Self-tuning Technique
余梓瑞
Subtype工学硕士
Thesis Advisor易建强
2010-05-31
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral中国科学院自动化研究所
Degree Discipline控制理论与控制工程
Keyword飞翼式 无人机 飞行控制 自校正 动态逆 Dynamic Inversion Flight Control Self-tuning
Abstract无人机由于其高费效比,无人员伤亡的特点,成为研究和应用的热点。特别是飞翼式无人机,由于其特殊的气动布局,在具有高升阻比,低雷达反射率等优势的同时,也存在着稳定性差,舵面操纵效率差等弊端。另外,飞机故有的非线性、耦合及参数时变的特点,也给控制器的设计带来了困难。本文在广泛了解传统控制方法和现代控制方法的基础上,对飞翼式无人机对象的气动特性加以分析,并针对其参数时变的特点提出了基于自校正的控制方案。本文的研究内容主要分以下几个部分: 首先,对本文涉及的飞翼式无人机,在典型工作点处进行配平并得到线性小扰动状态方程,对其气动特性加以分析,针对其纵向和横侧向均不稳定的特性提出了引入姿态角速率反馈的策略。 然后,对于该无人机的线性化模型,针对其模型参数随飞行状态变化的特点,引入了自校正方法,对线性化所得到的从升降舵至俯仰角的四阶传递函数模型应用带有极点配置的广义最小方差自校正控制器。为了避免求解高阶极点配置方程,提出了利用二阶模型近似辨识原四阶模型的方案,设计了带有极点配置的自校正PD控制器,该控制器由带有极点配置的PD控制器和参数辨识器构成。PD控制器所需要的飞机二阶模型参数由参数辨识器在线辨识求得。通过仿真验证,得到了很好的控制效果。 最后,对于该无人机的非线性模型,针对其非线性和耦合的特点,将动态逆控制和自校正方法结合,设计了自校正动态逆控制器。自校正动态逆控制器由动态逆控制器和参数辨识器构成。动态逆控制器在有效应对非线性的同时实现了纵向和横侧向的解耦合;动态逆控制器所依赖的飞机时变的模型参数,由参数辨识器在线辨识求得。通过仿真验证,得到了很好的控制效果。
Other AbstractDue to its high cost-effectiveness, no casualties, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) has become the focus of research and application. Especially the flying wing UAV, due to its special aerodynamic layout, has higher lift-to-drag ratio and lower radar reflectivity, along with poor stability and efficiency of control surface. In addition, nonlinearity, coupling and time-varying parameters of the UAV bring more challenge to the design of flight controller. This paper analyzes the aerodynamic characteristics of a flying wing UAV, and then proposes two self-tuning controllers. Firstly, the UAV is trimmed at a typical operating point. Then the linear longitudinal and lateral-directional state equations can be gotten. The aerodynamic characteristics are analyzed. Secondly, to cope with the time-varying parameters, self-tuning method is applied. A self-tuning controller with pole assignment is designed based on the four-order linear model of the UAV. To avoid solving high-order pole assignment equation, a second-order model is used to approximate the original four-order model of the UAV in the parameter identification. Then a self-tuning PD controller with pole assignment is presented. The controller consists of two parts, the PD controller and the parameter identification. The second-order model parameters needed in the PD controller are identified on line by the parameter identification. Good control effects are also shown through simulation. Finally, to cope with nonlinearity and coupling of the UAV, dynamic inversion technique and self-tuning method are combined. A self-tuning dynamic inversion controller is designed. The controller consists of two parts, the dynamic inversion controller and the parameter identification. The time-varying parameters needed in dynamic inversion controller are identified online by the parameter identification. Good control effects are also shown through simulation.
shelfnumXWLW1542
Other Identifier200728014628060
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/7544
Collection毕业生_硕士学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
余梓瑞. 基于自校正的无人机控制方法研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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