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一种新型机器海豚的机构设计与运动控制
其他题名Mechanical design and motion control of a new type of robotic dolphin
危常明
学位类型工程硕士
导师喻俊志
2012-05-25
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词机器海豚 凸轮机构 曲柄滑块机构 蜗轮蜗杆机构 运动控制 Robotic Dolphin Cam Mechanism Slider-crank Mechanism Worm And Worm Gear Mechanism Motion Control
摘要水下仿生机器人具有机动性好、推进效率高等优点,应用前景广阔。而生物海豚具有高机动性、高灵活性的特点,受到了越来越多的关注。作为水下仿生机器人的一个分支,机器鱼和机器海豚受到了极大重视,越来越多的学者和科研单位开始从事有关机器鱼和机器海豚的研究,并研发出了一系列具有不同功能和驱动方式的机器鱼和机器海豚。本文在自动化所已有机器海豚的基础上,提出一种新型机器海豚的整体设计方案,着重开展了机器海豚的机械结构设计和控制方案的研究。 首先,在自动化所已有机器海豚的设计基础之上,提出了一种由模块化推进机构组成的机器海豚。利用曲柄滑块机构原理,设计了一种模块化的推进机构,由两个推进机构串联组成两关节的机器海豚。并详细介绍了三种机器海豚的驱动方式,比较了凸轮机构、曲柄滑块机构和蜗轮蜗杆机构等推进方式的优缺点,以及机器海豚原型开发的具体步骤。 其次,该机器海豚采用直流电机加舵机联合驱动方式,它拥有由两个直流电机驱动的两关节尾部拍动机构,一个由舵机驱动的转弯机构和一个由舵机驱动的上浮下潜机构。依靠直流电机单方向不断的旋转来实现机器海豚的快速游动,充分利用直流电机的效率。 第三,根据多关节机器海豚的推进原理,设计了一块以ARM9(S3C2440)为核心处理器的控制电路板,并以uboot1.0.0为基础,修改了适合于控制电路板的引导程序。并根据直流电机的工作原理,设计了两种驱动方式:一种是基于RS232的驱动方式,另一种是基于CAN总线的驱动方式。根据机器海豚的控制要求,设计了一种多模态控制程序。为了配合机器海豚的游动,设计了相应的上位机控制程序,以便完成机器海豚的运动控制和参数调节。 第四,利用设计开发的机器海豚原型、控制电路和控制算法,在水中进行了相关的运动控制实验,完成了快速直游、转弯、制动和上浮、下潜等动作,对本文所述的机器海豚游动的稳定性和控制的有效性进行了验证。 最后,对本文的研究成果进行总结,并指出进一步需要开展的工作。
其他摘要Underwater biomimetic robots have the advantage of extraordinary maneuverability and high propulsive efficiency, which can be widely applied to many aquatic related applications. Biological dolphin features high mobility high flexibility that draws great attention and interests from academics and engineers all over the world. As a branch of underwater biomimetic robot, robotic fish and dolphin have received a great deal of attention, and a growing number of scholars and institutes begin to engage in the related investigations. A series of robotic prototypes with different functions and actuation have been developed. On the basis of previous work on robotic dolphin, this paper presents a new type of robotic dolphin, with focus on the mechanical design and control method. Firstly, based on the previous work on robotic dolphin, a novel robotic dolphin with modular drive mechanisms is proposed. A slider-crank centered mechanism is adopted in the modular propelling mechanism. Two propelling mechanism are serially connected to form a two-joint robotic dolphin. Three design schemes with different drive systems are compared and the advantages and disadvantages of the cam mechanism, the slider-crank mechanism and the worm and worm gear mechanism are outlined. Then the concrete design steps for constructing a robotic prototype are given. Secondly, a design scheme driven by the combine of DC motors with servo motors is presented. More specifically, a two-joint flapping mechanism is driven by two DC motors, while a turning unit and an up-and-down mechanism are driven by servomotors. By means of continuous rotation of the DC motor in one direction, the fast swimming of robotic dolphin is implemented, maximizing the efficiency of the used DC motor. Thirdly, according to the propulsive principle of the multi-joint robotic dolphin, an ARM9 (S3C2440) centered control board is developed. With proper modifications in the uboot1.0.0, a suitable bootloader is tailored for a specific function. Two drive modes are further designed: one is driven by the RS232 bus, the other is driven by the CAN bus. According to the control task of robotic dolphin, a multi-modal control is programmed. Additionally, the console is designed to accomplish motion control and parameter adjustment. Fourthly, with the well-developed robotic dolphin prototype, the control board as well as the control algorithms, a series of experiments have been carried out underwater. At present, a multitude of swim...
馆藏号XWLW1793
其他标识符2009M8014628005
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/7625
专题毕业生_硕士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
危常明. 一种新型机器海豚的机构设计与运动控制[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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