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How to use Bag-of-Words model better for image classification
Wang, Chong; Huang, Kaiqi
2015-06-01
发表期刊IMAGE AND VISION COMPUTING
卷号38期号:0页码:65-74
文章类型Article
摘要The Bag-of-Words (BoW) framework is well-known in image classification. In the framework, there are two essential steps: 1) coding, which encodes local features by a visual vocabulary, and 2) pooling, which pools over the response of all features into image representation. Many coding and pooling methods are proposed, and how to apply them better in different conditions has become a practical problem. In this paper, to better use BoW in different applications, we study the relation between many typical coding methods and two popular pooling methods. Specifically, complete combinations of coding and pooling are evaluated based on an extremely large range of vocabulary sizes (16 to 1M) on five primary and popular datasets. Three typical ones are 15 Scenes, Caltech 101 and PASCAL VOC 2007, while the other two large-scale ones are Caltech 256 and ImageNet. Based on the systematic evaluation, some interesting conclusions are drawn. Some conclusions are the extensions of previous viewpoints, while some are different but important to understand BoW model. Based on these conclusions, we provide detailed application criterions by evaluating coding and pooling based on precision, efficiency and memory requirements in different applications. We hope that this study can be helpful to evaluate different coding and pooling methods, the conclusions can be beneficial to better understand BoW, and the application criterions can be valuable to use BoW better indifferent applications. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
关键词Image Classification Bag-of-words Visual Vocabulary Coding Pooling
WOS标题词Science & Technology ; Technology ; Physical Sciences
关键词[WOS]VISUAL-CORTEX
收录类别SCI
语种英语
WOS研究方向Computer Science ; Engineering ; Optics
WOS类目Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence ; Computer Science, Software Engineering ; Computer Science, Theory & Methods ; Engineering, Electrical & Electronic ; Optics
WOS记录号WOS:000356196400006
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被引频次:7[WOS]   [WOS记录]     [WOS相关记录]
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/7938
专题智能感知与计算研究中心
作者单位Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Automat, Natl Lab Pattern Recognit, Beijing 100864, Peoples R China
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Wang, Chong,Huang, Kaiqi. How to use Bag-of-Words model better for image classification[J]. IMAGE AND VISION COMPUTING,2015,38(0):65-74.
APA Wang, Chong,&Huang, Kaiqi.(2015).How to use Bag-of-Words model better for image classification.IMAGE AND VISION COMPUTING,38(0),65-74.
MLA Wang, Chong,et al."How to use Bag-of-Words model better for image classification".IMAGE AND VISION COMPUTING 38.0(2015):65-74.
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