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指纹图像分析及其自动识别
其他题名Analysis and Automatic Verification of Fingerprint Image
程建刚
学位类型工学博士
导师田捷
2004-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业模式识别与智能系统
关键词指纹增强 指纹特征 指纹匹配 多尽度理论 非线性扩散滤波 Hough变换 Fingerprint Enhancement Feature Matching Dyadic Scale Space Theory Non-linear Diffusion Filter Hough Transform
摘要指纹识别是生物特征识别领域中应用最广泛的技术,具有悠久的历 史。长期以来,指纹识别技术主要应用于刑事侦查与司法鉴定领域,不 被大多数的人所了解。而计算机与信息处理技术的飞速发展,为这门历 史悠久的技术开拓了广阔的应用前景。 一个自动指纹识别系统由在线和离线两部分组成。在系统的离线部 分,用指纹采集仪采集到指纹图像,提取出特征信息,然后将这些特征 保存到数据库中,形成指纹模板库。在系统的在线部分,用指纹采集仪 采集指纹,提取出特征,然后将这些特征与保存在数据库中模板特征进 行匹配,判断输入细节点与模板细节点是否来自于同一个手指的指纹。 由于采集到的指纹图像有时质量比较差,需要对指纹图像进行增强处理。 在增强后的指纹图像上,主要是特征提取和特征选择。特征选择是影响 算法识别性能的根本。在指纹识别领域,有两种主要的特征选择方法, 一种是基于FBI细节点模型,包括在细节点基础上加入许多其他特征信 息,另一种是基于纹理特征,利用指纹的纹理信息来识别指纹图像。在 选择适当的指纹特征表示后,利用特征信息进行指纹匹配,从而组成了 一个自动指纹识别系统。 在指纹识别的研究中,存在许多识别算法,无论是在指纹分类,指 纹增强,指纹匹配算法,尽管得到了实际的应用,但是仍存在许多值得 研究的问题。本文对指纹图像的增强,特征选择,特征识别性能,细节 点匹配等问题进行了研究。其主要研究工作概括如下: (1)提出了一种利用非线性扩散滤波增强指纹图像以提取细节点的 方法。该算法利用指纹图像的结构张量构造扩散张量,使得滤波沿着指 纹脊线方向扩散。然后根据扩散张量在大小为(2n+1)×(2n+1)窗口上的离 散形式,分解扩散滤波为4n个方向的和,然后利用托马斯一高斯消元法 在每个方向快速求解非线性滤波后的指纹增强图像。该算法的优点是可 以有效的连接断裂脊线,而不会改变指纹脊线的连续性和奇异性。实验 结果表明,和其他算法相比,该算法对离线指纹图像更能提取出正确的 细节点。(2)提出了一种基于二尺度的指纹增强算法。在指纹增强中引入多 尺度空间理论,也就是一方面合理组织这些不同尺度的信息,另一方面 就是利用和分析这些不同尺度的信息,以达到去处指纹噪声的目的。二 尺度的方法是把指纹图像分解成一系列的图像,在每个尺度得到的图像 上提取出特征信息,这种由粗到细的增强指纹的方法能够最大程度的消
其他摘要Fingerprint recognition technology is one of the far-ranging application technologies in the biometrics, and has long history. In the past, it was mainly used in the criminal act and a cout of justice and few people known this techology. With the development of computer science, fingerprint recognition has extensive outlook servicing people. An automatic fingerprint identification system (AFIS) is composed of on-line and off-line parts. In the off-line part, the sensor capture the fingerprint image, the feature information is extracted, at last storage the features into database which are called as fingerprint template. In the on-line part, the sensor read the fingerprint image, and features are detected as in off-line part, and the features are matched with those in the template, judge whether the input features and template features are coming frome same fingerprint of same person. Some poor quality images exist in the captured images, and these poor quality images need to be ehnaced. After enhancing the image, mainly extract and select the feature. Feature selection is essence of influenceing the recognition performance. In an AFIS, there are two ways to select the features, one is the minutiae model proposed by FBI, including those system which use other information beside minutiae. The other is based on the texture of the fingerprint, which use the texture features to recognize the fingerprint image. After selecting suitable features, a fingerprint matching algorithm is built up based on the features. There are many algorithms which are applicable in the practice in field of fingerprint verification, whether fingerprint classification, fingerprint enhancement, and fingerprint matching, but still some problems remain to be valuable for research. This paper studies the fingerprint image enhancement, feature selection, recognition performance and minutiae matching.The main work of this dissertation is as follows: (1) We propose a nonlinear diffusion filter to enhance fingerprint image and extract the minutiae. The algorithm uses the structure tensor to construct diffusion tensor, and make the filter diffuse along the ridge direction. In order to improve the computing efficiency, according to the discrete format of the diffusion tensor in a window size of (2n+l)~ (2n+l), split the diffusion filter into 4n directions, after that, in each direction compute the fingerprint enhancement image with Thomas-Gaussian elimination algorithm. The advantage of this algorithm is to connect the breaking ridges in an effective way, and cannot change the continuity and singularity of the ridge.This method can enhance the image captured in off-line part in AFIS. (2)We propose dyadic scale space (DSS) theory in the computer science to enhance the on-line fingerprint image.DSS algorithm decomposes the fingerprint image into a series of images and organize th
馆藏号XWLW816
其他标识符816
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/5801
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
程建刚. 指纹图像分析及其自动识别[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2004.
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