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人类跨期决策脑机制的功能核磁共振影像学研究
其他题名The Neural Mechanism of Intertemporal Choice with Functional MRI
徐丽娟
学位类型工学博士
导师蒋田仔
2010-05-28
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学科专业模式识别与智能系统
关键词神经经济学 跨期决策 功能核磁共振成像 效应连接 奖赏与惩罚 Neuroeconomics Intertemporal Choice Fmri Effective Connectivity Gains And Losses
中文摘要跨期决策是对发生在不同时间,尤其是现在与未来之间的成本与收益进行权衡的选择过程。该过程不仅涉及到获益,也涉及到损失。时间折扣现象是跨期决策研究的一个基本发现,即人们总是倾向于对未来获益或损失的实际价值打折扣,赋予低于其实际价值的主观价值。跨期决策涉及人们生活的方方面面,深入探索跨期决策的脑机制是神经经济学领域的核心研究问题之一。本文旨在运用功能核磁共振技术,以探索跨期决策脑机制为目标,以经济决策理论为依据,从脑激活区检测、脑功能连接和效应连接、人格个体差异的影响等角度对跨期决策行为在获得情境和损失情境下的脑机制进行了系统的研究。 奖赏与惩罚是决策的重要成分,研究获得和损失情境下跨期决策的脑机制对全面理解决策行为非常重要。本文采用获得与损失对等的实验设计,首次从脑激活的角度考察了获得与损失情境下的跨期选择过程的脑机制及其异同。我们发现,获得与损失情境下跨期选择的脑机制不完全相同,第一次确认了两个不同的神经系统分别加工即刻和延迟的金钱损失。该发现表明人类大脑对未来损失比对未来获得更敏感,为揭示跨期决策的脑机制提供了新的证据。 对决策脑机制的研究应更深入的探讨参与决策过程的神经网络内及不同神经网络间的动态交互作用。在前一研究的基础上,采用心理生理交互作用及动态因果模型的分析方法,我们对跨期决策在获得情境和损失情境下的脑机制从功能连接和效应连接的角度进行了深入研究。我们发现,大脑中存在不同的价值评估系统衡量获得和损失,而决策过程即是价值评估系统与调控系统间动态交互的过程。该发现从神经网络的角度增进了对跨期决策脑机制的认识。 人格是影响跨期选择偏好的重要因素。本文结合冲动性及神经质-焦虑性人格指标,采用激活区检测和功能连接的方法考察了参与跨期选择的脑区活动水平及功能交互和人格特质的相关性。我们发现,在获得情境,冲动性和神经质-焦虑性人格均影响跨期决策过程,但在损失情境,只有神经质-焦虑性人格影响跨期决策过程。该发现表明跨期选择在获得与损失情境下的心理和生理机制是分离的,从人格影响决策行为的角度进一步揭示了跨期决策的脑机制。
英文摘要Intertemporal choice, the tradeoff among outcomes occurring at different points in time, especially the immediately available benefits/costs and future ones, involves not only gains options but also those associated with losses. People tend to discount future benefits/costs when facing decisions involving a smaller immediate gain/loss and a larger future one, and the subjective value of those delayed benefits/costs is less than their real value.Such a preference can be understood in terms of temporal discounting. Intertemporal choice is ubiquitous in daily decision-making. Understanding the neural mechanism of intertemporal choice is one of the central motivating problems in neuroeconomics. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), based on the economic decision theory, this dissertation aims to explore the underlying neural mechanism of intertemporal choice in the gains and losses domains from the aspects of brain activation, functional connectivity and effective connectivity, the effect of individual differences in personality traits, and reveal the specific neural mechanism underlying gains- and losses-related intertemporal choice. Reward and punishment are essential fators that affect decision-making. Investigating the neural basis of intertemporal choice in the gains and losses domains is very important for a better understanding of decision-making behavior. Using decision-making tasks with a symmetric pattern of gains and losses, we comprehensively investigated the neural mechanism of gains- and losses-related temporal discounting task. We found that the cognitive and neural processes during temporal discounting do not function identically for gains and losses, and we demonstrated for the first time that two distinct neural systems are involved in the valuation of immediate and delayed monetary losses. This result indicated that human are more sensitive to future losses than to future gain, and yield insight into the neural mechanism of intertemporal choice. Research on neural mechanisms of decision-making should move beyond the analysis of task-related regional activations and focus more strongly on functional interactions within and between different neural networks. Using psychophysiological interaction and dynamic causal modeling analyses, we goes significantly further toward investigating the dynamic interactions of the brain regions involved in intermporal decision-making in the gains and losses domains. We found two dist...
馆藏号XWLW1506
其他标识符200718014628070
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/6251
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
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GB/T 7714
徐丽娟. 人类跨期决策脑机制的功能核磁共振影像学研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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