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基于RSS的无线传感器网络定位方法研究
Alternative TitleResearch on RSS Based Localization Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Network
孟崇
Subtype工学硕士
Thesis Advisor谭民
2013-05-23
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院自动化研究所
Degree Discipline控制理论与控制工程
Keyword无线传感器网络 网络协议 定位 信号强度 Wireless Sensor Network Protocol Positioning Rss
Abstract定位正在成为我们日常生活中的一个非常重要的应用,人们越来越多的体会到基于定位的服务给生活带来的便利。无线传感器网络可以很方便的得到位置信息,更有助于提高很多应用系统的智能化水平。本文研究了无线传感器网络中的定位问题,研究内容涉及到无线传感器网络的硬件、软件以及定位方法。本文设计了一种体积小便携式无线节点,并利用这种节点实现网络的组网和通信协议。本文根据所设计的节点分析了无线信号的信道特性,给出不同环境因素对无线信号的影响情况,建立了一个无线信道的模型。最后,本文利用这个模型提出了一种改进的射频指纹搜索算法,和一种分布式的加权质心算法。本文的具体研究内容有以下几个方面: 1.设计了无线节点的电路,包括节点的处理器部分电路和节点的射频通信电路。开发研制的节点模块中添加了一些新的功能。增加了节点的低电压报警功能,当电池电压过低时,低电压报警电路能够提示单片机电压过低的情况,从而使单片机能够及时作出响应。实现了节点的充电接口与程序烧写接口的复用,使用了一个单刀双掷的干簧管开关实现了将节点接口的一个管脚的复用,从而减少了节点PCB板上的接口数量。为节点增加了按钮功能,使节点能够响应按钮动作。设计好的节点尺寸为40*40.5*4mm,仅比一枚一元的硬币稍厚。 2.设计了一种固定路由式无线传感器网络节点通讯协议和定位程序框架。本文设计了一种固定路由式的通信协议,由用户指定每个节点的路由表来实现节点之间的组网。本文还设计了两种不同的定位框架,一种是集中式的定位框架,节点将所有信息发送到服务器中,在服务器中运算得到移动节点的位置;另一种是分布式的定位框架,节点直接在自身处理器中计算出位置。本文给出了这两种框架的程序结构。 3.研究了无线传感器网络的信道特性,分析了多种不同的因素对无线信号的影响,设计了一种利用经验模态分解(EMD)的建模方法。使用该方法,仅需采集实验环境中少量数据,利用数据驱动建模,即可得到适应环境的模型。本文在实验基础上分析了所建立模型与传统模型相比较的统计特性。 4.在所提出定位程序框架的基础上,设计了两种定位方法。一种是集中式运算的改进射频指纹搜索算法,该方法使用EMD建立的模型作为参考模型,实验表明,这种方法比使用传统模型的射频指纹搜索算法有更好的效果。另一种方法是分布式的加权质心算法,使用之前提出的分布式定位框架,同时修改了权值的计算方法,这种方法计算量比较小,更加适合在移动终端运算。
Other AbstractWith the development of positioning technology, more and more people are experiencing the convenience of location-based services. Wireless sensor networks can easily get the location information, and help to improve the intelligence of the applications. In this paper, we studied localization in wireless sensor networks, the study addressed to the hardware, software as well as positioning algorithms. We designed a small size portable node, and implemented the network between nodes. Then we analyzed the radio signal characteristics, and established a radio channel model. Finally, we used the radio channel model in an improved RSS fingerprint search algorithm, and designed a distributed weighted centroid algorithm. Our research contains the following categories: 1. Designed the node's electric circuit, including the processor part and the RF communication part. We added some new features to the node, such as low power alarm. When the battery voltage is too low, the low power alarm circuit can notify the processor its battery state. We also multiplexed using the charging interface and the programming interface using a reed switch, so that the quantity of plugs can be reduced. Finally, we added a button to the node. The node's size is 48*40.5*4mm, only a little thicker than a one yuan coin. 2. Designed a fixed routing protocol and mobile node positioning program framework. We designed a fixed-route communication protocol, using user defined routing table to route a package between the nodes. We also designed two different positioning frameworks, one is the centralized positioning frame, in which the node will send all the information to the server, and the server compute the location of the mobile node; the other is distributed positioning framework, the node directly calculate the position in its own processor. 3. We studied radio channel characteristics of wireless sensor networks, analyzed a variety of different factors impact on the wireless signal. Then we designed an empirical mode decomposition (EMD) modeling method. This method only use a small amount of data in the experimental environment, uses a data-driven modeling, and calculates the model that adapts to the environment. Furthermore, we analyzed the static characteristics of the model. 4. Based on the RSS model, we designed two positioning methods. One is centralized computing method, using EMD model in the improved RSS fingerprint search method. Our experiment shows that the improved method is...
shelfnumXWLW1896
Other Identifier201028014628010
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/7692
Collection毕业生_硕士学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
孟崇. 基于RSS的无线传感器网络定位方法研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院大学,2013.
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