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针对柔性大形变问题的虚拟血管介入手术导丝导管建模
高占杰
学位类型工程硕士
导师侯增广
2016-06-02
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
关键词导管/导丝 虚拟血管介入手术 柔性物理建模 弹性棒理论 力反馈
摘要    心血管疾病是全球致死率最高的疾病,严重威胁着人类健康。当前,微创血管介入手术是治疗该疾病的主要方法。该方法相比于传统外科冠状动脉旁路移植术具有创伤小、恢复快、疼痛小的优势。但是微创血管介入手术操作流程复杂,介入医生需要具有丰富的手术经验和操作技术。在传统培训过程中,年轻医生需要经过大量的观察学习,通过大量的活体动物实验来提升自己的操作技术。基于活体动物实验的培训消耗大量的时间和财力,并且该培训在手术室内进行,造成年轻医生不必要的辐射伤害。虚拟介入培训系统为年轻医生提供一个具有很强沉浸感的虚拟仿真平台。年轻医生通过与虚拟环境进行交互,不断熟悉手术流程、提高手术技术。虚拟培训系统凭借费用低、时间地点不受限、无辐射伤害、有效性强等优势越来越受到医学培训领域的重视。本文结合自然科学基金“虚拟血管介入手术系统中的血管和导丝建模方法研究”(61203318)以及自然科学基金重点项目“血管微创介入手术机器人的基础问题研究”(61533016),对虚拟介入手术培训系统中的柔性介入器械如导管、导丝的建模及相关技术进行研究与集成。本文的主要研究内容和贡献如下:
    第一,针对传统虚拟手术系统串行设计造成实时性不高的问题,设计了一款基于多线程技术的实时性高的并行虚拟手术系统。该系统集成渲染模块和物理计算模块,并基于多线程分离这两个模块,有效提升了系统整体性能。
    第二,针对当前虚拟手术器械实时性和逼真度无法同时满足的问题,基于弹性棒理论实现了实时性高、逼真度高的手术器械物理模型。该模型基于真实导管和导丝的外形配置模型参数,在仿真实验中取得了良好的形变效果。
    第三,为实现实时性高、稳定性强的物理碰撞模块,设计了基于AABB层次包围盒和点-三角面片相交测试的实时性高的碰撞模块。该模块基于Bullet物理碰撞算法,有效地保证了物理计算的实时性。
    第四,对虚拟手术系统功能模块进行集成,并通过实验研究了手术器械物理模型的实时性和逼真度。该系统通过集成力反馈模块、心跳仿真模块提高了系统沉浸感。在仿真实验中,虚拟手术器械被插入到复杂的血管系统中,取得了良好的物理形变效果。
    最后,对论文的工作做了总结,并对进一步工作进行了展望。
其他摘要    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which seriously threaten human health, are the number one killer globally. Currently, minimally invasive vascular surgery (MIVS) is the main treatment. MIVS has the advantages of minimal trauma, rapid recovery, less pain over traditional open surgery.But the medical operation is complex,  so the specialist should have rich surgical experience and excellent instruments manipulation skills. In traditional training, young doctors need lots of observational learning and operating practices on live animals to improve their manipulation skills. Lots of time and money will be cost by traditional train method, and young doctors have to suffer radiation damage because they need to practice in the operation room. An alternative is virtual surgery simulator, which is qualified for training  young doctors. Young doctors can practice the surgical process based on the virtual environment provided by virtual surgery simulators. Virtual surgery simulators have drawn more and more attention because of their advantages of low cost, no radiation damage and effectiveness. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 61203318) and Key Project of Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 61533016). This dissertation mainly focuses on virtual surgery simulator system design and related technologies, such as surgical instruments modeling.
    Firstly, In order to achieve high real-time performance, a multithreading MIVS training system is developed. This system consists of rendering module and physical simulation module. Based on the multithreading technique, the rendering module and physical simulation module are executed on different threads.
    Secondly, a real-time and realistic surgical instruments model which is based on Cosserat theory of elastic rods is proposed. According to the sharps of real guidewires and catheters, the physical model of surgery instruments shows good performance.
    Thirdly, based on the Bullet physical engineer, a real-time collision module of the training system is developed. This collision module is implemented by hierarchical bounding volume trees using axis-aligned bounding box and primitive intersection.
    Fourthly, a prototype of MIVS training system is presented by integrating  function modules. Besides, some simulations are done to demonstrate the effectiveness of the physical simulation module. Virtual force feedback and heartbeat simulation are integrated to improve the immersion of the training system. In order to demonstrate the stability of the physical model, virtual surgery instruments are threaded into the complex vessel system and the performance of the physical model is satisfying.
     Finally, the achievements are summarized and future work is addressed.
学科领域虚拟现实
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/11674
专题毕业生_硕士学位论文
作者单位中国科学院自动化研究所
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高占杰. 针对柔性大形变问题的虚拟血管介入手术导丝导管建模[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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