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基于高维环境约束与不完备传感信息融合的机器人高精度柔顺性操作研究
李睿1,2
学位类型工学博士
导师乔红
2018-06
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
关键词机器人操作规划 全局柔顺性 高精度装配 柔顺抓取
摘要如何让机器人实现高精度、高柔顺性的操作,是机器人研究领域长期关注的问题。在机器人学与控制科学、机构学、材料学和计算机科学等交叉领域,已从不同角度对这一问题进行了研究。然而,如何让机器人具有像人一样的灵巧性和柔顺性,仍是目前相关领域研究的热点问题,同时也是制约机器人在高精密核心零部件制造、3C制造等领域进一步广泛应用的关键问题之一。
在本文中,将尝试从模拟人的角度出发,通过对人在操作过程中运动结构和决策方法的分析,充分考虑人对于环境约束信息与传感信息的融合,建立全局柔顺性操作框架,形成新的机器人高精度柔顺性操作算法和相应硬件平台,从而
(1)满足机器人典型操作任务的高精度需求;
(2)提高实现机器人操作任务算法的泛化能力;
(3)通过对环境约束信息的利用,以及与传感信息的融合,降低系统对于传感信息精度的依赖,提高系统的稳定性。
为机器人在我国制造业与服务业的进一步推广应用提供帮助。
针对上述研究目标,基于课题组前期利用环境吸引域实现无传感、高精度机器人操作的工作,本文研究高维位形空间中的环境约束的存在性与可用条件,同时考虑不完备传感信息与环境约束的融合,设计出机器人高精度柔顺性操作策略。主要研究内容包括:
第一,提出一种利用高维环境约束的机器人高精度操作规划方法。
针对三维凸零件的轴孔高精度装配问题,分析了位形空间中的接触状态与物理空间中的零件几何形状间的映射关系,给出了可用高维环境吸引域的存在条件,证明了三维凸零件装配过程中高维环境吸引域的广泛存在性,通过对一类凸多边形截面柱状零件的位形空间分析,给出了利用高维环境吸引域实现三维凸零件高精度装配的一般性应用策略。
第二,提出基于高维环境约束与传感信息融合的机器人高精度柔顺性操作融合框架与规划方法。
针对机器人操作的一般过程,在分析机器人与待操作物体在位形空间形成的高维环境约束的基础上,研究了传感信息在非物理空间的表达形式,证明了环境约束-传感信息融合空间内系统状态的稳定性条件,并在新空间设计了基于环境约束与传感信息融合的操作策略。针对带有触力觉反馈的手-眼系统,提出为实现快速反应的柔顺抓取方法,证明了这一操作策略的有效性。
第三,提出适用于机器人系统的全局柔顺性操作融合框架与作业方法。
分析人的生理结构,探索人实现操作柔顺性的硬件基础;开展人的行为学实验,分析人在操作过程中的动作和决策方式,探索人实现操作柔顺性的决策与控制的软件基础。基于人的工作机理,引入仿人的运动结构与运动机制,通过对传感信息与环境约束的融合,尝试建立适用于机器人的仿人全局柔顺性操作融合框架,实现对机器人仿人柔顺操作过程的有效操作与调节。
第四,基于以上提出的方法,设计了基于高维环境约束与传感信息融合的机器人高精度柔顺性装配系统。
通过“机构-约束-信息”的有机融合,以机器人~RV~减速器中的关键组件和一种通用双轴孔零件作为典型案例,利用低精度视觉与手爪-零件约束快速定位零件位姿,利用低精度力/力矩信息与零件间配合约束消除配合误差,从而实现上述组件的高精度、高可靠柔顺性装配,验证了操作策略的有效性。
最后,对取得的研究成果进行了总结,讨论了环境约束与信息融合与机器人操作任务中高精度、高柔顺性与高通用性目标的关系以及对机器人操作研究领域的促进作用,讨论了下一步准备开展的工作。
其他摘要
How to achieve high precision and compliance for robotic systems has been a long-term concern in the field of robotics research. In the intersecting fields of robotics and (i) control science, (ii) mechanism science, (iii) material science, and (iv) computer science, the question above has been studied from extensive angles. However, how to make the robots realize human-level or human-like dexterity and compliance is still a focused issue in related fields. In addition, it is one of the key problems that restrict the further application of robots in the industry of high-precision essential component manufacturing, 3C manufacturing and so on.
 
In this paper, attempts will be started from the point of view of simulating humans, to create an overall framework for robotic compliant manipulation, through analysis of the motion structure and decision-making methods of human in the process of manipulation, with fully consideration of the integration of environmental constraints and sensing information, which leads to forming new robotic compliance algorithms and corresponding hardware platform to:
1) fulfill the requirement for typical robotic manipulation tasks,
2) improve the generalization ability of the algorithms for robotic manipulation tasks, and
3) reduce the dependence of system on the precision of the sensing information, and improve the stability of the system through the utilization and integration of environmental constraints and sensing information.
It is hoped that the work could be helpful for the further application of robots in the manufacturing and service industries in China.
 
On the basis of the group's research on attractive region in environment (ARIE) for sensor-less high-precision manipulation, and aiming at the above objectives, this thesis will study the conditions of existence and availability of environmental constraints in high-dimensional configuration space. The integration of incomplete sensing information and environmental constraints will also be considered, and the strategy for high-precision robotic manipulation will be designed.
 
The main research contents are as follows:
First, a new high-precision manipulation strategy planning method is proposed, utilizing high-dimensional environmental constraints. Aiming at the problem of high-precision peg-hole assembly for 3D convex parts, the mapping relationship between the contact states in the configuration space and the geometric shape of the parts in the physical space is analyzed. The conditions of the existence of available attractive region in environment (ARIE) are also given. It is proved that high dimensional ARIE widely exists in the assembly process of 3D convex parts. By analyzing the configuration space of a class of cylindrical parts with convex polygon section, the general ARIE-based strategy for high-precision 3D convex parts assembly is presented.
 
Second, the framework and strategy planning method for robotic compliant manipulation based on the integration of high-dimensional environmental constraints and sensing information are proposed. In view of the general process of robotic manipulation, the expression of sensing information in non-physical space is studied based on the analysis of the high-dimensional environmental constraints formed in the configuration space between the robot and the object to be operated. The stability conditions of the system state in the integrated space of environmental constraint and sensing information are proved, and the strategy planning based on integration of the environment constraint and sensing information is designed in the new space. Further, targeting at the hand-eye system with force/torque feedback, a compliant grasping method is proposed to achieve rapid response to catch fast moving objects, which proves the effectiveness of this strategy.

Third, an overall framework and method for realizing compliance in robotic manipulation systems are proposed. Through analyzing human physiological structure, the hardware basis of achieving compliance in human manipulation is discussed; Based on human behavioral experiments, the action pattern and decision making mechanism during human manipulation is explored, which could been recognized as the software basis of achieving compliance in human manipulation. Combining the above analysis, some human-inspired motion structure and mechanism are introduced to robot systems, in hope that through the integration of sensing information and environmental constraints, a robot-applicable framework for achieving overall compliance like human, is proposed. The framework could be used to realize the effective adjustment to the process of compliant manipulation.

Fourth, based on the proposed method, the compliant robotic assembly system with high precision is designed, which utilizes the integration of high-dimensional environmental constraints and sensor information. Through effective fusion of ``machine-constraint-information'', the assembly of essential components for RV reducer and some typical parts are taken as the typical case, to illustrate the validity of the manipulation strategy, where the position and pose of the parts are quickly located by using the low-precision vision and the grip-part constraint and the matching error are eliminated by using the low precision force / torque information and the matching constraint between the parts.

Finally, the research results are concluded, where a discussion on how the integration of environmental constraints and sensing information helps in achieving high precision, high compliance and high generalization as the same time is also provided. Discussions on future work are also given.

文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/20987
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
作者单位1.中国科学院自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
推荐引用方式
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李睿. 基于高维环境约束与不完备传感信息融合的机器人高精度柔顺性操作研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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