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虚拟手术系统中的接触交互技术研究
其他题名Research on Haptic Interfaces for Vitual Surgery System
臧爱云
学位类型工学博士
导师原魁
2004-06-01
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词虚拟手术系统 接触交互技术 物理模型 虚拟手术器械 力反馈 Virtual Surgery System Haptic Interaction Technology Physical Model Virtual Surgery Instrument Force Feedbace
摘要虚拟手术系统的开发和利用不但可以节约培训医务人员的成本和时间,而且也可以降低非熟练人员进行实习手术时的风险,对提高我国的医学教育水平和 整体医疗水平具有重要意义。在虚拟手术系统中,人机接触交互技术起着非常重 要的作用。虚拟手术器械是虚拟手术系统的人机接触交互接口,是其重要组成部 分,也是当前制约虚拟外科手术发展和普及的瓶颈问题之一。本文深入研究了虚 拟外科手术中的人机接触交互技术,并对虚拟手术器械的工作原理和实现方法, 以及生物软组织的物理模型建模方法进行了探讨和研究。本论文的主要创新工作 总结如下: 为了建立一种基于真实切割中刀刃上切割力信息的生物组织物理模型,本 文研制开发了一种能够实时采集切割过程中手术刀刃上的真实受力,以及手术刀 的位置、姿态和速度信息的手术刀信息采集设备。该设备是在真实手术刀上安装 各种传感器而获得的,具有结构紧凑、性能好、方便使用等特点。用电子天平校 正了手术刀力采集设备,试验结果证明该设备能够准确采集到切割时刀刃上的真 实受力、高精度的位置和姿态信息。 本文提出了一种基于切割过程中刀刃上的真实受力和软组织变形的生物组 织物理模型建模方法。本文分析了生物体组织切割中滞后、松弛、蠕变,各向异 性等特性。从能量守恒和状态转换角度,对真实切割力变化曲线进行了详细分析。 研究了确定生物体材料断裂强度,和粘弹性变形时的应力一应变关系的方法。基 于真实切割采集到的切割力和变形数据构建了肝脏和皮肤组织的物理模型。 本文研制开发出了基于真实手术器械形状的新型虚拟手术刀和虚拟手术 剪。这两种虚拟手术器械具有力反馈和精确定位功能。在虚拟手术中,当检测到 虚拟手术器械接触到虚拟人体或虚拟器官时,力反馈装置就会对用户手部施加一 个大小可控的作用力,使用户有真实的触碰感觉。力反馈是基于比例电磁铁执行 元件,钢丝绳-弹簧管传动方式的装置。在运行过程中,系统对反馈力进行闭环 控制,刷新频率可以达到1000Hz。这两种虚拟手术器械在虚拟手术操作方式上 和真实手术的感觉一样,符合实用要求,具有良好的效果。 本文还对磁跟踪技术进行了研究,并在此基础上,研制开发出一种基于磁 传感器和加速度计,结构简单、低成本、高精度的姿态跟踪系统。该姿态跟踪装 置可以应用在虚拟手术系统中,为系统提供可靠的高精度三自由度姿态信息。
其他摘要The research and application of Virtual Surgery System (VSS) can not only cut down the expense and the time of training a qualified surgeon, but also reduce the chance of surgery venture. So VSS has significant meaning for the improvement of medical education and medical treatment. The Man-machine Haptic Interaction Technology plays a key role in VSS. Virtual surgery instrument is an important component of VSS, and now is one factor that restricts the further development of VSS. The paper researched deeply the man-machine haptic interaction technology of VSS. The working principle and realization method of virtual surgery instruments, as well as physical model of biology soft-tissue are discussed and researched. The novel work and contribution of this thesis can be summarized as follows: For building the reality-based haptic model of the virtual surgery, a new kind of scalpel information acquisition device has been developed, which can at the same time give out the scalpel cutting force data, the position and pose information of the scalpel, as well as exercise speed information. The device is implemented by installing sensors on a true scalpel. It owns the characteristic of compact structure, high precision and conveniently to use. An electronic balance calibrated the device; the experiment results show that the scalpe force acquisition device can accurately gather scalpel-cutting force data. This thesis proposed a physical model building method of biologica soft-tissue. The method based on the real cutting force data and SOft-tiSSUE deformation data. The biological characteristics were analyzed, such as delay slack, creep and anisotropy properties. The cutting force data was analyzed ir detail from the point of energy conservation and state transform. The methoc of determining biological tissue's fracture toughness, and viscoelasticit stress-strain relation are also researched. The physical models of liver anc skin have been builded based on real cutting data. A virtual scalpel and a virtual scissors based on true surgery instrumen shape have been developed. The virtual surgery instruments have forc feedback and self-location function. When there is collision between virtua instrument and virtual obiects in virtual surclerv, the force feedback device canprovide a controllable force to user who then can have real feeling. An improved proportional electromagnet is used as the actuator of this force feedback device. Force is transmitted from actuator to effector via steel cable-spring pipe. The force is closed-loop controlled in the system, update speed can reach 1000 Hz. The operation mode of the virtual surgery instruments make users have the same feeling as they have in true operation. The virtual surgery instruments can meet practical requirement, and have good effect. Magnetic track technology is also researched in this thesis, and on this found
馆藏号XWLW819
其他标识符819
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/5822
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
臧爱云. 虚拟手术系统中的接触交互技术研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2004.
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