CASIA OpenIR  > 毕业生  > 博士学位论文
轮式移动机器人运动控制与导航技术研究
Alternative TitleMotion Control and Navigation of A Wheeled Mobile Robot
张永谦
2006-04-04
Subtype工学博士
Abstract移动机器人是机器人学的一个重要分支,随着移动机器人技术的发展,人们对移动机器人的要求不再停留在简单的执行操作者发出的命令上,而是朝着多功能、智能化、大众化的方向发展。研究未知环境中的移动机器人运动控制以及导航控制理论与方法具有重要的意义。本文围绕移动机器人感知系统和控制系统两大方面,对非结构环境下轮式移动机器人环境感知、运动控制、避障与导航等问题进行了研究。 本文首先对移动机器人的历史和发展趋势、移动机器人运动控制和导航等进行了综述,同时介绍了本文的选题背景和主要研究内容。 其次,针对移动机器人轨迹跟踪问题,根据轮式移动机器人的动力学模型设计了一种离散滑模轨迹跟踪控制器,克服了系统扰动的影响。当系统存在动力学扰动时,仍能实现比较好的跟踪并具有较好的鲁棒性。 第三,分析了超声传感器的工作特性与其测距的局限,在此基础上给出了基于DSP的移动机器人超声传感器阵列的信号处理方法以及具体实现,最后通过实验验证了所采用的超声传感器阵列信息采集与处理系统能够实时有效地感知机器人周围静态与动态障碍物的距离信息。 第四,以环境描述作为主要研究内容,提出一种基于超声阵列主元分析的环境描述方法,用超声阵列数据集的主元来构造一个具有较少维数的主元空间,将原始数据集向主元空间进行投影来描述环境,然后分别利用神经网络和支持向量机等算法将实验室环境中的走廊分成典型的类别。 第五,针对未知环境中移动机器人导航问题,对自主式移动机器人的行为进行了分析,给出了一种基于行为的轮式移动机器人CASIA-I导航方法。该方法中的机器人导航控制结构采用由趋向目标、沿墙运动、躲避障碍、紧急制动等四个行为模块构成的反应式控制结构。各行为模块可根据传感器输入,并结合高层行为抑制低层行为,决定其行为输出。仿真和实验表明:该算法简洁,易于实现。机器人可实时避开障碍物奔向目标。 最后,本文对所取得的研究结果进行了总结,并指出需继续开展的工作。
Other AbstractMobile Robot is one of the most important parts of Robotics. It is very significant to do the research on mobile robots’ environment modeling, motion control, obstacle avoiding, and robot navigation. Focusing on the sensing system and control system for wheeled mobile robot working in an unknown environment, the research of environment modeling, motion control, obstacle avoidance and robot navigation are presented in this thesis. Firstly, the research on the history, trend, navigation and motion control for mobile robots are reviewed, and the background, main research contents, and the research significance of this thesis are introduced in this part. Secondly, focuses on the trajectory tracking control problem for wheeled mobile robots, a discrete sliding mode control laws based on the dynamical model have been addressed. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can be used to realize trajectory tracking with a well precision despite dynamical disturbances and it has robust property compared with a classical inverse kinematic controller. Thirdly, the characteristic, property and limitation of ultrasonic sensors are analyzed, and a DSP based information acquisition and processing system of ultrasonic sensors array is presented. The experimental results show that the proposed system is satisfactory for mobile robot environment sensing and obstacle avoiding applications. Fourthly, a novel approach to mobile robot environment modeling based on principal component analysis of ultrasonic sensors array data is presented. A principal components space, which has the less dimensionality than the raw data space, is constructed from the principal components of a large number of ultrasonic sensors data sets. Subsequent ultrasonic data sets from the environment project as a point in this principal components space. By application of BP neural network and SVM (support vector machine) method respectively, these projections are classified into typical local structures of the environment in order for the robot to discriminate them. Fifthly, this dissertation describes a behavior-based reactive navigation architecture for mobile robot working in unknown environment. The navigation control architecture for the mobile robot is reactive architecture that composes of several behavior-based modules such as move_to_goal, follow_wall,avoid_obstacle and emergency_brake. Each behavior module can decide its own output according to the sensors’ inputs and the restrain to lower behavior layer by upper behavior. The simulation and experiment results are provided to demonstrate that the proposed method provides an efficient way for mobile robot navigation in unknown environment. Finally, the obtained research results are summarized and future work is addressed.
Keyword轮式移动机器人 运动控制 主元分析 环境建模 导航 Wheeled Mobile Robot Motion Control Principal Component Analysis Environment Modeling Navigation
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/5894
Collection毕业生_博士学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张永谦. 轮式移动机器人运动控制与导航技术研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2006.
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