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无线传感器网络中节点定位和机器人导航技术研究及应用
其他题名Research and Application of Node Localization and Robot Navigation in Wireless Sensor Networks
孙骁
学位类型工学硕士
导师梁自泽
2011-05-26
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词无线传感器网络 传感器节点 定位 机器人导航 Wireless Sensor Network Sensor Node Localization Robot Navigation
摘要无线传感器网络的研究涉及无线通讯技术、嵌入式计算机技术、微电子技术、智能控制技术、现代传感器技术等多个学科,在环境监测、智能家居、现代农业等许多领域都有广泛的应用前景和潜在的应用价值。本文利用无线传感器网络实现了一个福利院老人身体状况监测系统和一个废墟搜救机器人无线通讯系统,在实现上述系统的过程中,围绕无线传感器网络的硬件平台、节点定位技术和网络中机器人的导航方法开展了相关研究,主要研究工作包括: 第一,对无线传感器网络的结构、特点和目前的研究热点与现状进行了阐述,对无线传感器节点的硬件组成结构及其特点进行了介绍。在对一些现有的典型传感器节点进行分析的基础上,本文设计了一款结构简单、成本低廉的传感器节点,节点包含处理器模块、无线射频模块、传感器模块和能量供应模块,各模块之间可以根据实际应用环境进行组合,最大程度地实现了节点硬件模块的复用性,降低了节点成本。 第二,设计了一套基于无线传感器网络的老年人身体状况监测系统,实现了对于老人体温、血压、脉搏以及是否倾倒等信息的实时监测。在该系统中,本文提出了一种基于节点ID的路由协议,并解决了移动节点在各子区域间运动时动态加入和退出网络的问题。 第三,针对上述老年人身体状况监测系统中需要对倾倒和请求帮助的老人进行定位的问题,本文提出了一种基于节点动态发射功率的室内定位算法。该方法通过动态调节目标节点的发射功率,然后收集分析各信标节点的应答信息,实现对目标节点位置的估计。使用这种方法不需要增加额外的硬件设备,避免了对测距信息的要求,其有效性通过仿真和实际实验结果得以验证。 第四,设计了一个利用传感器节点在废墟搜救机器人和控制中心之间建立无线通讯链路的应用系统,提出了一种在无线传感器网络中基于 接收信号强度(Received Signal Strength Indicator, RSSI)的机器人导航算法。该方法利用移动节点和导航节点之间的RSSI信息计算机器人的旋转角度和运动速度,引导机器人从初始位置沿着导航节点运动到目标位置。仿真结果表明,应用这种方法能够花费较少的时间实现机器人的导航,并且得到的导航路径与理想路径非常接近。
其他摘要As an interdisciplinary research area covering wireless communications, embedded computing systems, microelectronics, intelligent control, modern sensor technology, etc., wireless sensor network (WSN) has broad application prospects in many fields, e.g., environmental monitoring, smart home, modern agriculture, etc.. Two application systems of WSN, a monitoring system for the physical condition of old people and a wireless communication system for the earthquake rescue robot, are presented in this thesis. Focusing on the hardware platform of WSN, sensor node localization and robot navigation in WSN, this thesis mainly consists of the following contents: Firstly, the thesis broadly introduces some basic concepts in WSN, including the structure and characteristics of the network, hot issues in this area, and the hardware platform of the sensor node. By analyzing and referencing the design of some typical sensor nodes, a sensor node is designed in this thesis which is simple and low-cost. This node contains four parts, the processing module, RF module, sensor module and energy module. All these modules can be easily assembled and reused in different application environments, which reduces the cost of hardware systems. Secondly, based on the wireless sensor network, a monitoring system is designed. It can monitor the old men's physical condition in real time by collecting and analyzing their body temperature, blood pressure and pulse and detecting whether the old man is tumbled. In this application system, a routing protocol based on the IDs of the sensor nodes is presented and a method is proposed to make the mobile node spontaneously enter or quit a local area network while it crosses these subregions. Thirdly, in order to estimate the positions of old people who fall over or who need help, an in-door localization algorithm, named dynamic transmission power based localization, is proposed. By regulating its transmission power dynamically and analyzing the reply packets from beacon nodes, the target node's position can be calculated. Unlike other schemes, extra equipments and range information are unnecessary here and the performance of this algorithm is verified by both computer simulations and real-world experiments. Lastly, a wireless communication system, which takes the sensor nodes as relays to transmit packets and wireless information between rescue robot and control center, is designed and an RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) based robot n...
馆藏号XWLW1586
其他标识符200828014628013
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/7554
专题毕业生_硕士学位论文
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孙骁. 无线传感器网络中节点定位和机器人导航技术研究及应用[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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