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面向复合材料自动铺丝的轨迹规划与运动控制研究
李利娜
学位类型工学博士
导师徐德
2017-05-23
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
关键词网格模型 轨迹规划 同步控制 自动铺丝 机器人
摘要复合材料自动铺丝技术是一种新型复合材料自动化制造技术,具有加工成本低、速度快、成品质量高、强度高等特点,在发达国家已广泛应用于航空航天领域,而我国相关研究与应用则处于起步阶段。将其进行深入研究,对我国研制具有自主知识产权的高性能纤维铺放设备具有重要的意义。本文针对自动纤维铺放技术中的模具表面自动化测量、自动铺丝轨迹规划和铺放过程中的运动控制等若干关键技术进行了深入研究,主要完成了以下几个方面的工作:
(1)针对模具表面的检测任务,在基于三角网格模型的基础上提出了一种基于聚类的扫描路径规划算法。首先,分析了扫描系统的组成以及扫描测量原理,给出了系统中手眼参数的标定方法;然后,分析了模具的三角网格模型,提出了基于STL文件格式的网格模型拓扑重建和邻域面片搜索算法;然后,提出了基于聚类区域化分的扫描路径规划算法,在分片区域上生成扫描路径;最后,通过仿真和实际的扫描试验验证了提出的扫描路径规划算法的有效性,并且针对机翼类模具进行了表面扫描试验,给出了扫描结果。
(2)针对自动铺放过程中的铺丝轨迹规划问题,提出了一种变偏移距离的铺丝路径生成算法。首先,基于切片原理,给出了生成四种常用铺放角度的铺丝基准路径的方法;然后,利用基准路径作为参考,提出了偏移距离的计算方法;给出了偏移过程中纤维丝束数目的确定方法,生成了覆盖模具表面的铺丝轨迹路径;最后,通过仿真验证了设计的铺丝轨迹规划算法的有效性,并通过对比验证了本文提出的算法能够在铺放过程中满足铺放误差的要求,保证纤维丝束完全铺放在模具表面;并且在一次铺放过程中纤维丝束数目不变,避免在铺放过程中对纤维丝束的剪切/重送动作。
(3)针对自动铺放过程中机器人带动铺丝头的运动与铺丝头控制器对纤维丝束动作之间要求协调的问题,提出了一种主从同步和时间同步相结合的控制方法。首先,提出了对轨迹规划路径的离散化方法;然后利用轨迹点的矢量补充,获取了机器人末端铺丝头压辊在轨迹点处的位姿信息,从而实现了机器人运动的自编程;然后,通过对铺层边界的处理,提出了铺丝头对丝束控制的逻辑信息的生成方法,实现了对铺丝头动作的自编程;最后,针对铺放过程中机器人的运动进行了仿真,并且将仿真过后的程序导入机器人控制器,在平面模具上进行了铺丝试验,试验结果验证了本文所提出的同步控制方法的有效性。
本文以自动铺丝技术为切入点,深入研究了自动铺放过程中的若干关键技术,具有重要的理论意义和现实意义。
其他摘要Robotic fibre placement with many advantages such as low processing cost, high speed, high product quality and product strength, is a new type of composite advanced manufacturing technology, and it has been widely applied in the aerospace field in the developed countries. But the related research about it is at the initial stage in our country. It is of great significance for the development of high performance fiber placement equipment with independent intellectual property rights. This dissertation focuses on the key technologies of automated measurement of mould surface, path planning of fibre placement and motion control during fibre placing process in the field of robotic fiber placement. The main contributions are described as follows.
(1) A path planning algorithm based on meshed surfaces for mould surface inspection is proposed. The algorithm is on the base of dynamic clustering. Firstly, the scanning system and scanning measurement principle are analysed, and the calibration method for hand-eye parameters of the system is given. Secondly, methods for meshed topology reconstruction and searching neibouring facets are developed. The meshed surface is described by STL file format. Thirdly, a new path planning algorithm for area divided is introduced, and the scanning path of every area is generated. Fourthly, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified through simulation and the scanning experiment, and the airfoil surface is inspected by the development algorithm, and the scanning result is given.
(2) An accurate path planning algorithm with the commonly used four laying angles in the robotic fibre placement is proposed. Firstly, the initial paths with different laying angles are firstly produced based on the slicing algorithm. Secondly, taking the initial paths as reference, the methods to compute the offset distance and the number of fibre tows are given. The trajectories covering mold surface are generated. Thirdly, the simulation results verify the effectiveness of this method. The developed algorithm meets the requirement of the placement error, which ensures fibre tows are completely laid on the mold surface. The number of fibre tows in one placement path is constant to avoid the cutting/restarting the fibre tows during the placing process.
(3) During the placement process, the robotic motion and the fibre tows control by placement head controller need to be coordinated. The problem is solved by a proposed combination method of master-slave synchronization and time synchronization. Firstly, the discretization method of placing trajectory is introduced. The poses of the placement head roller which is mounted on the end of the robot are generated by the supplement of the vectors of trajectory point, the automatic programming of robotic path is realized. Secondly, a method to produce the logic information which is used by the fibre placement head to control the fibre tows is described. The automatic programming of placement head action is achieved. The algorithm is based on the processing of the layer boundary. Thirdly, the simulation of robotic motion is conducted. After the simulation, the correct program is downloaded to the robotic controller. A practical experiment on planar mould is conducted to verify the the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization control algorithm.
Conclusively, the key technologies of robotic fibre placement are studied deeply, which has important theoretical and practical significance.
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/14719
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
作者单位中国科学院自动化研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李利娜. 面向复合材料自动铺丝的轨迹规划与运动控制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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