洪水、溃坝等水灾给人类生命财产带来巨大危害，灾后的救援任务多为人工救援，然而洪水后的水下环境复杂危险，水下搜救面临挑战。水下作业机器人能够代替人类完成水下搜救任务，提供人员搜救、输送氧气、破拆切割等功能，为自然灾害救援提供装备支撑。本文面向水下救援任务，开发研制了水下应急救援机器人，设计了水下应急救援机器人控制软件，提出水下机器人遥操作控制算法，论文的主要研究成果如下： 一、采用模块化设计思路，开发了一款具有水下破拆切割、输送氧气、图像视频采集等功能的水下应急救援机器人，并研制了实验样机。水下应急救援机器人具备高速运动能力，最大游动速度达2m/s。最后，通过水下实验验证了水下应急救援机器人样机的可靠性。 二、开发了水下应急救援机器人可视化控制软件，用于控制机器人进行水下破拆切割作业。可视化控制软件具备机器人运动控制、机械臂位置控制、水下视频录制等功能，同时具备机器人断连后应急处理能力，拥有安全的指令传输方式。最后，通过水下破拆切割实验验证了控制软件的有效性。 三、利用力触交互设备，设计了基于触觉力反馈的水下应急救援机器人遥操作控制算法。首先，建立水下应救援机器人的动力学模型，搭建了视觉触觉结合的水下仿真平台。其次，利用坐标力映射和触觉力反馈相结合的遥操作控制方法实现了机器人本体运动；利用分阶段控制方法实现了水下机械臂末端位置控制。其中，水下机械臂大幅度移动的阶段采用弹簧阻尼系统平滑机械臂末端运动轨线，消除操作员手部抖动和失误颤动对机械臂控制的影响，水下机械臂小幅度移动的阶段采用增量控制方式。最后，通过仿真遥操作实验验证了所提方法的可行性和有效性。
The disasters such as floods and dam failures bring great damage to the human life and property, and most post-disaster rescue tasks are performed by humans. However, the underwater environment after floods is usually complex and dangerous, and there are many challenges for the underwater search and rescue tasks. The underwater vehicle-manipulator systems(UVMSs) can replace humans to complete the underwater rescue tasks, including personnel search, oxygen delivery, underwater cutting and other tasks, and provide equipment support for the disaster rescue projects. For the underwater rescue tasks, an underwater emergency rescue vehicle-manipulator system(UERVMS) is developed in this thesis, and the control software for the UERVMS is designed, as well as a teleoperation control algorithm for the UERVMS is proposed. The main contributions of this thesis are as follows:
Firstly, inspired by the modular design idea, an UERVMS with some functions such as the underwater cutting, oxygen delivery, image and video collection and so on has been developed, and an prototype of the UERVMS is presented. Also, the UERVMS has high-speed exercise capabilities, which maximum swimming speed reaches 2m/s. At last, the reliability of the prototype are verified by underwater experiments.
Secondly, a visual control software for the UERVMS has been developed to perform the underwater cutting operations. At first, the visual control software has functions such as vehicle motion control, manipulator position control, underwater video recording and so on. In addition, the software has the emergency processing capability after the URRVMS is disconnected, and has a safe command transmission method. Finally, the effectiveness of the control software is verified by underwater cutting experiments.
Thirdly, using the haptic device, the teleoperation control algorithm of the UERVMS with haptic force feedback is designed. At first, the dynamic model of the UERVMS is established, and an underwater simulation platform combining visual and tactile is built. In addition, a teleoperation control method combining coordinate force mapping and haptic force feedback is proposed for the vehicle motion control; a staged control method is proposed for the end-effector's position control of the manipulator. The spring-damping system is used to filter the operator's hand shaking and misoperation in the stage of large-scale movement of the manipulator, and the incremental control method is used in the stage of small-scale movement. At last, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are verified by simulation teleoperation experiments.
|Keyword||水下救援 水下应急救援机器人 可视化控制软件 遥操作控制 触觉力反馈|
|MOST Discipline Catalogue||工学::控制科学与工程|
|马进. 水下应急救援机器人设计与遥操作控制[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院自动化研究所,2022.|
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