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仿生机器鱼的机构设计与智能控制研究
其他题名Research on Design and Control Methods of Intelligent Biomimetic Robot Fish
王龙
学位类型工学博士
导师谭民 ; 王硕
2007-05-30
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词仿生机器鱼 智能控制 动力学 姿态控制 机构 Biomimetic Robot Fish Intelligent Control Dynamics Posture Control Mechanism
摘要在国家高技术研究发展计划(863计划)和国家自然科学基金的支持下,本文开展了智能仿生机器鱼的机构设计和运动控制的研究,提出了一种三维运动机器鱼的机构设计方法,在对机器鱼动力学分析的基础上,建立机器鱼前进、俯仰、转弯和定深运动的动力学模型,基于遗传算法对尾部机构进行了优化,设计了机器鱼姿态调整和定深运动的智能控制器,最后在水池中完成机器鱼的运动实验。 第一,本文介绍了鱼类游动的特点和仿生机器鱼研究的目的、意义,综述了国内外在鱼类推进机理、仿生机器鱼研制以及控制方面的研究概况、主要研究内容及发展方向,并对本文的选题背景和主要内容进行了介绍。 第二,根据鱼类游动的特点和方式,提出了一种能够实现三维运动和静态悬浮的仿生机器鱼设计方案。在此方案的基础上,给出了具体实现的方法,包括能够实现“8”字型翼尖轨迹的两自由度胸鳍机构、能够拟合鱼体波曲线的单电机尾鳍机构、能够实现拍动翼运动规律的双电机尾鳍机构、能够调节体积的鱼鳔机构和能够保证机器鱼稳定的外壳设计方法。 第三,对机器鱼进行了动力学分析,包括利用有限元方法分析了鱼体所受阻力和阻尼力矩、基于USBE方法分析胸鳍受力、基于二维波动板理论分析了尾鳍受力及进行了机器鱼悬浮分析。在身体各部分受力分析的基础上,建立了前进运动、俯仰运动、偏航运动和定深运动等几种运动的动力学模型: 第四,提出了双电机尾部机构的优化方法,优化了尾鳍正弦运动的运动学参数,使得尾鳍产生的推力最大。在保证尾鳍运动学参数和电机功率一定的前提下,采用遗传算法对尾部机构参数进行优化。 第五,提出了机器鱼运动控制方法,由于CPG能够产生节律信号,和鱼类胸鳍的节律运动吻合,本文设计了两种基于CPG的姿态控制器,分别用于俯仰和转弯控制。基于模糊的方法设计了一种定深运动控制器,它能同时控制胸鳍攻角和机器鱼体积,使得机器鱼能快速静态悬浮于指定深度。 第六,用实验验证了机器鱼的前进、转弯和上浮下潜运动。 最后,对所开展的工作进行了总结,并指出了需要进一步研究的工作。
其他摘要With the support of National Hi-Tech Research Development Program and National Natural Science Foundation of China, the research on mechanisms and intelligent control of a biomimetic robot fish has been carried out. In this thesis, the methods are presented, which focus on design of a 3D swimming robotic fish, dynamic models of different motions such as swimming forward, pitching, turning, rising and submerging, parameter optimization of caudal mechanism and intelligent controller for posture control and depth maintaining. Several experiments are done in a small pool, and the results are given. Firstly, The main research directions and progress of both fish’s propulsive mechanism, robot fish’s development and control are reviewed. Secondly, a biomimetic robot fish with the ability of 3D locomotion and suspension is given. According to this design, several mechanisms are realized: a two DOF pectoral fin mechanism which can make pectoral fin tips achieve 8-shaped locus; a caudal mechanism based on fish body wave fitting with one driven motor; a two motor driven caudal mechanism based on the oscillating fin theory; a piston mechanism which has a similar function as gas bladder; and a shell designed under the consideration of the robot-fish’s stability. Thirdly, the dynamics of the robot fish is analyzed. On the basis of the anlysis results, several dynamic models for different motions such as swimming forward, pitching, turning, rising and submerging are established. Fourthly, an optimal method for the caudal mechanism with two driven motors is presented. The optimization process is divided into two parts: the kinematic parameter optimization, which can bring the maximum thrust force based on caudal fin oscillating rule; the mechanical parameter optimization for caudal mechanism, which is based on Genetic Algorithm with the above kinematic parameters and the given motor power. Fifthly, the control methods are presented for robot fish motion control. Because the CPG model can produce a series of rhythm signals similar to the rhythm oscillating of fish’s pectoral fins, two CPG based posture controllers are presented for pitching and yawing control. And a depth controller with fuzzy rules and reasoning is designed, which can make the robot fish go fast and suspend at a given depth by means of adjusting pectoral fins’ attack angles and robot fish’s volume. Sixthly, some experiments such as swimming forward, turning, rising and submerging are done to show the validity of the robot fish prototype. Finally, the research results in the thesis are summarized and future work is addressed.
馆藏号XWLW1077
其他标识符200418014628044
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/5990
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王龙. 仿生机器鱼的机构设计与智能控制研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2007.
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