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双臂巡线机器人系统设计与越障控制方法研究
Alternative TitleDesign of a Bi-Brachiation Inspection Robot System and Research on its Obstacle Negotiation Control Approaches
杨国栋
Subtype工学博士
Thesis Advisor梁自泽 ; 李恩
2011-05-26
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral中国科学院自动化研究所
Degree Discipline控制理论与控制工程
Keyword巡线机器人 自适应控制 模糊逻辑 欠驱动系统 视觉伺服 Inspection Robot Adaptive Control Fuzzy Logic Underactuated System Visual Servoing
Abstract巡线机器人是一种应用于高压输电线路巡检的特种机器人,它可以在输电线路上长时间运行并利用自身携带的检测设备对输电导线及线上金具进行自动检测作业,从而可大大降低电力工人的劳动强度和危险性,提高巡检效率及质量,保障输电线路的稳定运行。实现机器人巡检的主要难点在于其自主越障能力,输电线路上一般安装有防震锤、线夹、间隔棒等多种障碍物,制约了巡线机器人的远距离大范围巡检。因此必须研究灵活的越障方式、可靠的越障机构及控制方法,才有可能实现机器人自主巡线。 本文在相关研究基础上设计了一种新型的双臂式巡线机器人,并围绕机器人自主越障过程,针对不同越障阶段的系统模型,分别进行了基于模糊逻辑的回转式越障控制、基于能量方法的对称直线移动式越障控制以及基于视觉伺服的手臂抓线控制研究,论文的主要工作包括: 对巡线机器人的研究意义、背景及国内外发展现状进行了综述,从机械结构、控制系统、信息融合、续航能力四个方面对 巡线机器人关键技术和发展趋势进行了分析,并总结了研究过程中的难点和重点。 通过对巡线机器人工作环境和障碍物类型的分析,设计了双臂式机器人机构,并针对不同跨距的障碍物, 设计了回转式和对称直线移动式两种不同的越障方式。采用递阶式控制结构,利用模块化的方法设计了巡线机器人的控制系统,包括基于ARM的机器人主控制器、基于ASIC的运动控制系统、基于多传感的信息感知系统和基于DSP的视觉系统。设计了自主控制、远程遥控、手动控制三种控制方式,以适应不同的应用环境。通过远程遥控的方式进行了巡线机器人的越障实验,验证了系统的有效性。 针对回转式越障控制问题,采用拉格朗日方法建立巡线机器人的动力学模型,设计了基于确定模型的线性控制器,并通过仿真实验得出线性控制在面对系统不确定性时的局限性。利用模糊逻辑对系统不确定性以及摩擦力进行补偿,提出了一种基于自适应模糊逻辑的轨迹自动跟踪方法,并使用Lyapunov方法证明了其稳定性。该方法可实现对回转式越障过程的轨迹跟踪,能够有效控制机器人的起臂和回转运动,并得到仿真实验的验证。 针对对称直线移动式越障控制问题,应用拉格朗日方法分别建立了巡线机器人起臂过程和对称直移越障过程的欠驱动系统模型,通过分析模型的无源性,设计了基于系统能量的运动控制器,并应用LaSalle不变性原理证明了系统的稳定性。在进行稳定性分析的同时,提出了一种使系统收敛到期望平衡点的控制器参数选择方法。利用提出的控制器及参数选择方法,可实现系统从任意初始状态到期望平衡状态的稳定控制。 针对巡线机器人越障过程中的手臂抓线问题,提出了一种基于图像的视觉伺服控制和基于有限状态机的辅助控制相结合的混合控制方法。该方法采用eye-in-hand的摄像机配置方式,通过分析摄像机与导线之间的空间关系,构造了特征点深度估计函数和系统的特征雅克比矩阵,并利用输电线在图像中的特征信息,设计了基于图像的视觉伺服控制器。为保证特征点始终保持在摄像机视野内,使用势函数的方法对图像特征进行分类,设计了基于有限状态机的辅助控制器。实验结果验证了该方...
Other AbstractInspection robot is a special robot applied to inspect the high-voltage power transmission lines. The robot can reduce the labor intensity and risk of the workers, while increasing the inspection efficiency and equality and guaranteeing the stable operation of the power lines by running on the power lines continuously and maintaining the lines and fittings automatically with the carried devices. The difficulty in automatic inspection by robot is to negotiate all the obstacles on the power line by the robot itself, because there are obstacles such as the vibration dampers, the clamps and the insulating strings and so on, which restrict the movement of the robot. So it is necessary to design flexible obstacle negotiation procedure as well as reliable mechanical structure and control methods to realize the inspection of the power lines by robot automatically. In this paper, a bi-brachiate inspection robot is designed based on the relative research, and several control problems are studied based on different system models during the automatic obstacle negotiation procedures, such as the turning-around procedure based on adaptive fuzzy logic, the symmetric-linear procedure based on the energy method and the automatic-clamping procedure based on visual servoing. The main contributes of this paper includes: The previous research work and the research implication of the inspection robot are presented. The key technologies and the development trends are analyzed including the mechanical structure, the control system, sensor fusion and the endurance. A bi-brachiate robot structure is designed based on the analysis of the environment and the type of the obstacles. Two kinds of obstacle negotiation way, such as turning-around and symmetric-linear, are designed for different obstacles. The control system composed by robot main controller based on ARM, motion control system based on ASIC, environmental perception system based on multi-sensor and visual system based on DSP, is designed with the hierarchical structure based on modular method. Three control ways such as automatic control, remote control and manual control are presented which will be used in different situations. Obstacle negotiation experiments have been carried out by remote control, which show the effectiveness of the designed system. The dynamic model of the inspection robot in the turning-around procedure is derived based on Lagrangian method. A linear controller is designed based on the d...
shelfnumXWLW1576
Other Identifier200818014628024
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/6342
Collection毕业生_博士学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨国栋. 双臂巡线机器人系统设计与越障控制方法研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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