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水上无人机建模与起飞控制研究
其他题名Modeling and taking off control design for a unmanned flying boa
朱迎谷
学位类型工学博士
导师易建强 ; 范国梁
2013-05-29
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点中国科学院自动化研究所
学位专业控制理论与控制工程
关键词水上飞机 无人机 水动力建模 自主起飞控制 自抗扰控制 Seaplane Unmanned Flying Boat Hydrodynamics Taking Off Control Adrc
摘要水上无人机是指能在水面自主起飞降落的固定翼无人飞机,根据外形特征分成船身型水上无人机和浮筒型水上无人机两类。作为一种可水面起降的特殊无人机,其民用和军用前景广泛,研究具有重大的工程和理论意义。 由于水上无人机的水作用力难于估计,且起飞着水环境复杂多变,长期以来,针对水上无人机建模、数值分析、控制和自主起飞等方面的研究未能取得实质性进展。虽然国外有少量水上无人机研制成功的报道,但至今尚无相关公开发表的研究成果,因此水上无人机自主控制方面仍然存在着大量的理论和工程问题亟待解决。 本课题以某型水上飞机无人化自主控制研究为背景,在已有实验数据和分析结果(水池拖拽实验和风洞实验)的基础上,参考高速船舶和常规无人机的建模和控制方法,修正Savitsky半经验水动力计算方法,建立水上无人机静水面上的纵向非线性模型;针对Savitsky半经验水动力计算方法的不足,采用并修改基于二维切片理论的水动力计算方法,建立水上无人机在不同海况下的纵向非线性模型。在仿真分析水上飞机在水面起飞过程中的动力学特性之后,针对水上无人机纵向稳定性差、海况适应能力弱等问题,结合自抗扰控制技术、非线性动态逆、T-S模糊推理提出两种自主起飞控制算法。具体完成以下几部分工作: (1)分析水上无人机在静水面起飞时的动力学特性,根据机身外形特点和动态系统仿真需求,研究并修改Savitsky半经验水动力计算方法,建立水上无人机在静水面上的纵向非线性模型,将仿真数据和水池拖拽实验数据对比,验证模型的有效性; (2)Savitsky半经验水动力计算方法本质上是一种静态的水动力计算方法,无法准确估算水上无人机动态过程中水动力的变化情况,难以准确描述海浪对水上无人机的非线性作用。针对这些问题,对水上无人机在多种海况下的动力学特性进行分析,根据无人机外形特点和动态系统仿真需求,研究并修改基于二维切片理论的水动力计算方法,建立多种海况干扰下的基于二维切片理论和Savitsky半经验水动力计算方法的水上无人机纵向非线性模型,并将仿真数据和水池拖拽实验数据对比,验证模型的有效性; (3)针对水上无人机具有模型复杂、纵向稳定性差、容易诱发不稳定运动等问题,提出一种基于非线性动态逆和扩张状态观测器的水上无人机自主起飞控制算法。静水面和0.6米波高规则波水面的水上无人机控制系统的仿真实验结果表明:该自主起飞控算法提高了水上无人机的稳定性,实现水上无人机在以上两种水面上平稳加速、滑行并起飞的过程。最后将该控制器算法和经典PID控制算法进行仿真对比和分析; (4)面对复杂多变的海浪环境,水上无人机容易被突如其来的海浪掀翻,或者被剧烈的水动力损坏机载设备和机身结构。因此在系统地分析水上无人机水动力和动力学特性基础之上,提出一种基于T-S模糊推理和自抗扰控制技术的自主起飞智能控制算法,并将经验知识和海况信息以模糊规则的形式引入该控制算法设计当中。仿真结果表明该智能起飞控制算法有效地缓解海浪对水上无人机的冲击、升降舵舵面饱和等问题,提高水上无人机在高海况下的生存能力。 总体而言,针对水上无人机稳...
其他摘要Unmanned seaplanes are special fixed-wing airplanes which can take off and land on water. According to their technological characteristics, seaplanes can be divided into two categories: floatplanes and flying boats. Because of their unique features, unmanned seaplanes have lots of civilization and military utilities and research on unmanned seaplanes is of great theoretical significance and practical value. As the hydrodynamic forces estimation for unmanned seaplanes is very complicated and sea states are severe and unpredictable, the researches on the modeling, mathematical analysis, control design and unmanned techniques for seaplanes have few substantial developments. Although there are some unmanned seaplanes reported to be successfully developed in American and England, no relevant researching result has been published. There are still lots of theoretical and practical problems for unmanned seaplanes. According to the research results from high speed boats and flight control technologies, two mathematical models based on Savitsky semi-empirical method and two-dimensional strip theory respectively are established for an unmanned flying boat. Through simulations, the forces, motions and dynamic characteristics of the flying boat are analyzed. Then, two automatic taking-off control algorithms based on active disturbances rejecting control method, nonlinear dynamic inversion control method and T-S fuzzy logic control system are proposed. The research work can be divided into following parts: (1) The dynamic characteristics of the flying boat are analyzed when taking-off on smooth water, and a mathematical model for the vertical motions of the flying boat has been established by Savitsky semi-empirical method which is corrected based on the sharp features of the flying boat and requirements for dynamic system simulation. This model has been verified by comparing the simulation data of the model with the experimental data. (2) The Savitsky semi-empirical method is a stable hydrodynamic forces estimation method, which means that it is difficult to simulate the dynamic process of the unmanned flying boat. And the Savitsky semi-empirical method doesn’t consider the nonlinear hydrodynamic influences of waves. In order to deal with these problems, a mathematical model based on a two-dimensional strip theory and Savitsky semi-empirical method is established. Some corrections to the two-dimensional strip theory are made based on the sharp of the flying bo...
馆藏号XWLW1862
其他标识符201018014628022
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ia.ac.cn/handle/173211/6538
专题毕业生_博士学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
朱迎谷. 水上无人机建模与起飞控制研究[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院大学,2013.
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