CASIA OpenIR  > 毕业生  > 硕士学位论文
Alternative TitlePositioning and Navigation of an Intelligent Wheelchair
Thesis Advisor谭铁牛
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral中国科学院自动化研究所
Degree Discipline模式识别与智能系统
Keyword智能轮椅 自定位 路径规划 避障 Intelligent Wheelchair Self-localisation Path Planning Obstacle Avoidance
Abstract智能轮椅主要是为了方便人们的日常生活,特别是为了那些肢体上有残疾的人 们而设计的。它的工作范围主要是室内环境,目前智能轮椅完成的任务主要是为使 用者提供一些传输性服务,比如自动地把乘坐者从一个地方载到另一个指定的地方, 或是根据使用者的命令传递物品。 智能轮椅是智能机器人的一个应用,它们研究的问题基本上相同,主要包括自 定位、障碍检测、随机避障、路径规划等。目前世界上越来越多的研究人员开始从 事智能轮椅方面的研究,所以针对这几个问题人们不断有新的解决方案。本文就智 能轮椅研究中的几个问题作了比较深入的研究,并提出了一些新的算法: (1)提出了一种基于路标树的机器人自定位方法。这是一种定义工作环境的框 架,在这一框架中机器人可以根据需要多尺度的确定自己方位。另外在路标树的基 础上,路径规划问题变得很简单,寻找两点之间的最短路径成为树结构上的节点连 线问题; (2)提出了一种基于消失点的避障算法,由于此算法考虑到场景成像过程中的 透视变换效应,机器人行进中检测路径时只关注道路本身,从而消除了周边环境的 干扰,因此比一般的算法更鲁棒。
Other AbstractIntelligent wheelchair is designed to aid people in their daily life, especially for the disabled. Its work environment is mainly indoors. Intelligent wheelchair is expected to be able to transport its user or deliver items automatically. For example it can take the rider from one position to another required place by itself, or it is capable of picking up and delivering something as commanded by the user. Intelligent wheelchair is the application of intelligent mobile robots. They share similar research areas, including self-localisation, obstacle detection and avoidance, path planning. Now there are more and more researchers working on intelligent wheelchair and thus more and more new strategies have been proposed. In this thesis, some of the key issues of an intelligent wheelchair are investigated and some new algorithms are proposed. The contributions of this thesis include: (1) a novel Landmark Tree based robot self-localisation algorithm. This is a framework used to map the wheelchair's work environment. In this framework a robot can locate itself in a multi-scale as required by its user. In addition, based on Landmark Tree, finding the nearest path between two positions is mapped to linking two nodes in a tree, which makes the problem of path planning easy to be solved. (2) a vanishing point based obstacle avoidance strategy. Taking perspective effect into consideration, a robot only pays its attention to the real road when detecting and finding its path, which, as we know, reduces the influence of surrounding and irrelevant environment. Therefore this algorithm is more robust. Experiments are described to justify the algorithms.
Other Identifier619
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
赵小建. 智能轮椅的定位与导航[D]. 中国科学院自动化研究所. 中国科学院研究生院,2001.
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